General Management and Leadership

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Chapter 5:
General Management and Leadership

Learning outcomes
• Conceptualise the skills managers must acquire in the context of their roles as managers, and identify and understand the four primary management tasks • Analyse planning as a management task relevant to all management levels • Analyse organising as a management task, including modern structuring and design • Analyse leading as a management task with the focus on teams, culture and work-force diversity, motivation and communication © Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Learning outcomes
• Analyse control as a management task in order to continually improve performance • Understand the interaction between the four primary management tasks • Understand the supportive role of decision-making • Understand a strategy for competitive advantage

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Framework of chapter
• • • • • • • • Management skills and roles Management levels Planning and strategy Organising Leadership Control Managerial decision-making Managing for competitive advantage

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Figure 5.1: Basic management skills

Managerial roles
Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Management levels
• Top managers • Middle managers • First-level managers • Non-managerial employees

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Figure 5.2: Management levels

Management levels, tasks and skills
Level
Tasks

Top managers
•Planning •Organising •Leading

Middle managers
•Planning •Organising •Leading •Control •Conceptual •Technical •Human

First-level managers
•Leading •Control

Skills

•Conceptual •Human

•Technical •Human

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Types of planning
• Strategic planning • Functional planning • Operational planning

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Figure 5.3: Strategy levels

The strategic planning process
Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5:
© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Develop organisation’s vision, mission Analyse the business environment Set long term goals Develop strategies (corporate, business, functional) Implement and control the selected strategies

The planning process
Step 1: Step 2: Setting objectives Developing and selecting appropriate plans Implementing the selected plan

Step 3:

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Organising
Organising concepts
– – – – – – – – unity of command chain of command span of management division of labour coordination responsibility and authority delegation flexibility

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Departmentalisation
CEO

Functional Product/ service Customer Territory
© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Director Marketing

Director Operations

Director Finance

Director Sedans

Director Bakkies

Director Trucks

Director Men’s clothing Director Gauteng

Director Women’s clothing Director Free State

Director Children’s clothing Director Western Cape

Figure 5.4: Functional departmentalisation

Figure 5.5: Product departmentalisation (motor manufacturer)

Figure 5.6: Customer departmentalisation (clothing retailer)

Figure 5.7: Geographic departmentalisation (provinces)

Figure 5.8: Matrix departmentalisation

Figure 5.9: Forces affecting organisational structuring and design

Figure 5.10: Informal structures

Types of leadership power
• Legitimate power • Coercive power • Reward power • Expert power • Referent power • Information power © Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Leadership approaches
• Leadership trait theory • Behavioural leadership theories • Situational leadership theories

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Leadership factors
1. 2. 3. 4. Motivation Communication Groups and teams Culture and diversity

© Van Schaik Publishers 2006

Figure 5.11: The relationship between control and the transformation process

The control...
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