General Communication

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NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION
More than 90% of the total impact of any message is created through nonverbal communication. In an organisation, higher-level authorities have 50 to 60 % impact by facial expression, body position and gestures. They use 5 to 10 % words for impact and 30 to 40 % impact is given by their verbal communication.

The way an individual stands, holds his hands, tilts his head, all transmit volumes about the individual. One of the most important solutions to understanding communication is to realise that much of it is never expressed verbally. Nodding head sideways for negative and up and down for affirmative.

Non-verbal communication consists of four main elements:
body language (face, eyes, touch, gestures),
artifacts (clothing, appearance, office design),
voice (pitch, loudness, rate, vocal variety, vocal emphasis) and time.

A) POSTURE AND GESTURE
It is also called as kinesics. Postures and gestures are reflexive of tension, relaxation, power, happiness, sorrow etc.

The conductor of an orchestra uses controlling gestures to communicate with the players; the conductor will additionally employ gestures to emphasise and to convey emotion.

Some countries, like Italy and France, are rich in display gestures with many Non-verbal signals accompanying interpersonal speech, while people of British descent tend to use positively fewer such gestures.

An emblem is a gesture that substitutes for a verbal equivalent Examples are the sign language used by the deaf, thumbs up means "yes" or "go ahead," V for victory or the poll man's extended vertical palm as a stop sign.

If the body is turned to show close attention to the other, this implies attraction or that we think this person has high status.

When two individuals are in close agreement with one another or wish to exclude others, frequently they will unconsciously mirror the other's body language. For example, one person might cross their legs and very shortly after the other person will as well.

Turning away indicates fear, boredom or rejection of what the other is saying. Crossed arms may convey opposition to what the speaker is saying and hands on hips may suggest either self- confidence or a readiness to argue with what is being said. A person leaning back in a chair with arms behind the head can be seen as signaling dominance or complacency.

If a leader becomes uninterested in the work, this usually communicates itself by body language. It may be expected that shortly thereafter, the performance of others will decline also.

B) FACE AND OCCULESICS (EYES)
Face communication’s elemens are eyes, eyebrows, forehead, lips and jaws can move

C) HAPTICS (TOUCH)
Touch is a symbol of love, affection, praise, warmth etc. Touch that is acceptable between people of the same sex or within the same family may be much less acceptable between individuals of opposite sexes or different families. The extent of touching found allowable varies according to one's culture, age group, sex and social situation.

In some societies, it is usual for men to kiss each other on meeting or hold hands while walking together and not to do so would be regarded as cold and unfriendly. In Maori culture, it is customary for visitors to be greeted by a hug, kiss or both and in this context a kiss between a man and a woman who have not met each other before is normal behaviour. In the culture of some countries, a kiss between two adults of the opposite sex who have not met each other before would be considered unusual.

The extent of touch is also influenced by personality factors. The major form of touch used in organisations is the handshake. It is an important symbol of welcoming and acceptance. It is considered very poor manners if men shake hands when wearing gloves.

A handshake often serves as our first source of information about the other person when we meet them. Wesson (1992) calls the handshake one of the most direct statements...
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