Gender Inequality in Workplace

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1) A study was conducted ( V.V.Giri National Labour Institute 2007) in Brass Industry,Moradabad city Uttar Pradesh where 64 male and 5 female children worked in artisan units and 30 male and 2 female children worked in multi-process units. Why child labour? Children were put to work mostly because they were out of school. Their early entry into the workforce was a natural trap due to their reduced working capacity after 30 years. Highest productive capacity of an artisan was at the age of 18 and started declining after 30 years. Reduced physical capacity, declining income, low longevity and ill health were the reasons for pushing children into work at an early age. Type of work: The two most hazardous processes in the brassware industry were moulding and polishing. The child was employed to do two types of jobs. He rotated the wheel, which was called pankha (hand wheel) to keep the furnace fire burning and the temperature in the furnace was about 1100° C. The child also checked the molten metal by opening the top of the underground furnace. Consequences: In these processes there was not only danger of getting badly burnt, but he also inhaled the fumes and hazardous gases. Lead and Zinc poisoning were the most prevalent health hazards in Moradabad brassware industry. Dangerous machinery, sharp tools and toxic substances in the working environment of children affected them adversely. Unhygienic living and working conditions make children vulnerable to communicable diseases. Child labour was often casual and poorly paid. Severe malnutrition, anaemia, hard labour, fatigue and inadequate sleep made children more susceptible to accidents. In most units, the machines used in the polishing process neither had any exhaust system, any provision of screens or enclaves to prevent flying metal dust affecting the workers, due to which many injuries could happen.

The Government of India Census report 2001 figures a total of 12.66 million children (5-14 years)...
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