Fundamentals of Communication
Chapter 1: Competent Communication
What are the most common myths about communication?
1. Communication is the cure all2. Communicating is just common sense3. Communication quantity equals quality
Explain the differences between the three models of communication: linear, interactive, and transactional. linear: one way, sender sends a message through a channel to a receiver in an atmosphere of noise interactive: back and forth; different from linear because it has feedback, also the different fields of experience of people effects this model transactional: says that everyone is a sender and a receiver
Define the basic communication elements contained in the communication models(channel, sender, receiver, message, encode, decode, context, fields of experience, noise, and feedback) Sender: persons sending the message
Message: what the senders wants the receiver to get
Receiver: person getting the message
Channel: Medium a message is sent through
Encode: process of formulating a message
Decode: making sense of the message
Noise: interference with effective transmission and reception of a message Physical: external, environmental distractions
ex. startling sounds
Physiological: biological influences
ex. sweaty palms, pounding heart
Psychological: preconceptions, biases, and assumptions
Semantic noise: reflected in word choice that is confusing or distracting Feedback: the receiver's verbal and nonverbal response to the message (not found in the linear model)
fields of experience
: include our cultural background, ethnicity, geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over a lifetime
Explain the two aspects of every message: Content and relationship. Content:
what is actually being said or done
Relationship: How the message defines or redefines the association between individuals
What differentiates a constructive communication climate from a destructive communication climate? Constructive: Openness Supportiveness
Destructive: Closedness Defensiveness
Chapter 2: Perception of Self and Others
Define the perceptual process .Process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting data from our senses
What is a perceptual schema (prototype, stereotype, and script)?
Mental framework that creates meaningful patterns from stimuli
Prototype: is the most representative example of something
Stereotype: a generalization about a group or category of people Script: a predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected todo in a given situation
How is self-concept developed (reflected appraisal, significant others, and society)? Influenced by relationship and communication with others, how people look at you and perceive you Reflected appraisal:
messages you receive from others that assess yourself concept How the society you live in evaluates how a person should be has an effect on self-concept and self esteem What are some of the influences on perception (gender, culture, past experiences, mood,and context)?
What is self-disclosure?
Process of purposefully revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and others would not know unless you told them
Define the concepts of depth and breadth in terms of self-disclosure. Breadth: range of topics discussed Depth: how personal you are when they are discussed
What are the guidelines for offering and receiving self-disclosure? Trust Reciprocity: disclosure is two way street Cultural Appropriateness Situational Appropriateness Incremental Disclosure
Why is reciprocal sharing important?
One way disclosure creates vulnerability
Define the term “self-serving bias”.
The tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves but to assign external circumstances to our unsuccessful behavior What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
What does it influence? Acting on an erroneous...