Figure 1 The sources of blood glucose in a human body during a normal day of 24 hours are shown in the above figure. Glucose is primarily derived from glycogenolysis occurring between meals. Glucose is chiefly sourced from the dietary intake for few hours following the principal meals of the day. Late at night, gluconeogenesis becomes the predominant source of glucose. 1 Glycogenolysis decreases after midnight because A C 2 gluconeogenesis takes place. hepatic glycogen is depleted. B D muscle glycogen is converted to glucose. energy consumption is less after mid night.
The early morning glucose supply in the blood is provided by which of the following? A C Diet Gluconeogenesis B D Glycogenolysis Both B and C
The maximum contribution of blood glucose from gluconeogenesis occurs during which of the following time periods? A C At midnight Before breakfast B D After lunch Before dinner
Unit 2 Question 4 Regulation of blood glucose level is tightly controlled by feedback mechanisms in the body. Insulin is released from beta cells in the pancreas in response to the consumption of food. As glucose levels drop during fasting, the pancreas secretes glucagon from alpha cells that release glucose from body stores. 4 Thirty minutes after eating a large sweet meal including cake and candy, which of the following blood levels would be expected?
Low Glucose, low Insulin Low Glucose, high Insulin
High Glucose, low Insulin High Glucose, high Insulin
Unit 3 Questions 5-9
Figure 1 The population growth of two species of Paramecium is shown in the graphs above. Graph ‘a’ shows the growth of both species when cultured separately, while graph ‘b’ shows the growth of both Paramecium species cultured together. When the two species of Paramecium are cultured together, Paramecium aurelia has a competitive advantage over Paramecium caudatum. When the two species are grown separately, the growth of both species achieves a stationary phase after a certain interval of time. 5 When grown together, the population of Paramecium caudatam starts decreasing after A C 6 7 days. 16 days. B D 6 days. 8 days.
When both species of Paramecium are grown together, Paramecium caudatum shows a stationary phase of growth, after the A C 6th day. 3rd day. B D 12th day. 8th day.
Which of the following takes the longest time to achieve the stationary phase? A B C D P. aurelia when grown separately. P. caudatum when grown together with P. aurelia. P. aurelia when grown together with P. caudatum. P. caudatum when grown separately.
Which of the following statements regarding the growth of Paramecium species is correct? A B Both the Paramecium species achieve a stationary phase whether grown separately or together. When grown separately, the population densities of each Paramecium species are the same after the 4th
C D 9
day. When grown together, neither of the Paramecium species will become extinct. Both B and C
The competitive threat in Paramecium species when grown together is most likely due to a competition for A C temperature. nutrients. B D oxygen. both A and B.
Unit 4 Questions 10-13
Decreased arterial pressure Renin (kidney) Renin substrate (Angiotensinogen) Angiotensin I Converting enzyme Angiotensin II
Renal retention of salt and water
Increased Arterial pressure Figure 1 10 Vasoconstriction in the blood vessels induced by angiotensin II raises the arterial pressure by increasing the A C 11 blood flow. peripheral resistance. B D diameter of the Lumen of blood vessels. capillary hydrostatic pressure.
All of the following have enzymatic action in the renin-angiotensin pathway shown EXCEPT A C angiotensinogen. angiotensinase. B D angiotensin converting enzyme. renin.
Angiotensin II uses all of the following means in order to increase arterial pressure EXCEPT A C water retention. arteriolar constriction. B D...