Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Overlapping Functions

Topics: Action potential, Neuron, Nervous system Pages: 7 (451 words) Published: November 15, 2013
Chapter 11 – Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue I. The 3 Overlapping Functions:
a. Sensory Input:

b. Integration:

c. Motor Output:

II. Levels of Organization in the Nervous System:
a. Central Nervous System (CNS):

b. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):

i. Sensory (afferent) Division:

ii. Motor (efferent) Division:

1. Somatic Nervous System:

2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS):

a. Sympathetic Division:

b. Parasympathetic Division:

III. Histology
a. Neuroglia (CNS):

i. Astrocytes:

ii. Microglial Cells:

iii. Ependymal Cells:

iv. Oligodendrocytes:

b. Neuroglia (PNS):

i. Satellite cells:

ii. Schwann cells:

c. Neurons
i. Special Characteristics:
1. Extreme longevity:

2. Amitotic:

3. High Metabolic Rate:

ii. Cell Body:

iii. Neuron Processes:
1. Dendrites:

2. Axons:

a. Transport Along the Axon:
i. Anterograde movement:

ii. Retrograde Movement:

b. Myelin Sheath:

i. Myelination in PNS:

ii. Myelination in of CNS:

IV. Classification of Neurons
a. Structural Classification:
i. Multipolar:

ii. Bipolar:

iii. Unipolar:

b. Functional Classification:
i. Sensory, or afferent, neurons:

ii. Motor, or efferent, neurons:

iii. Interneurons:

V. Membrane Potentials:
a. Basic Principles of Electricity:
i. Voltage:

ii. Potential:

iii. Current:

iv. Resistance:

v. Ohm’s law:

b. Role of Membrane Ion Channels:
i. Leakage, or nongated channels:

ii. Chemically gated, or ligand-gated, channels:

iii. Voltage-gated channels:

iv. Mechanically gated channels:

c. The Resting Membrane Potential:
i. Resting membrane potential:

1. Polarized:

ii. Differences in Ionic Composition:

iii. Differences in Plasma Membrane Permeability:

d. Membrane Potentials that act as Signals:
i. A change in membrane potential can be produced by:

ii. Changes in membrane potential can produce:

1. Graded potentials:

2. Action potentials:

iii. Depolarization:

iv. Hyperpolarization:

e. Graded Potential:

f. Action Potentials:

i. Generation of AP:
1. Resting State:

2. Depolarization:

3. Repolarization:

4. Hyperpolarization:

ii. Threshold and the All-or-None Phenomenon:

iii. Propagation of an AP:

iv. Coding for Stimulus Intensity:

v. Refractory Periods:

1. Absolute refractory period:

2. Relative refractory period:

vi. Conduction velocity:
1. Axon diameter:

2. Degree of myelination:

3. Continuous conduction:

4. Saltatory conduction:

5. Nerve fibers classification:
a. Group A fibers:

b. Group B fibers:

c. Group C fibers:

VI. The Synapse
a. Synapse:

i. Axodendrictic synapse:

ii. Axosomatic synapse:

iii. Presynaptic neuron:

iv. Postsynaptic neuron:

b. Electrical Synapses:

c. Chemical Synapses:

i. Synaptic vesicles:

ii. Neurotransmitter:

iii. Synaptic cleft:

d. Information Transfer Across Chemical Synapses
i. AP arrives at axon terminal:

ii. Voltage-gated calcium channels open and calcium enters the axon terminal:

iii. Calcium entry cause synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitter:

iv. Neurotransmitter diffuses across synaptic cleft and binds to receptors on postsynaptic membrane:

v. Binding of neurotransmitter opens ion channels, creating graded potentials:

vi. Neurotransmitter effects are terminated:

e. Synaptic Delay:

VII. Postsynaptic Potentials and Synaptic Integration:

a. Excititory Synapses and EPSPs:

b. Inhibitory Synapses...
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