Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology (9th Edition) Ch1-6 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Review Guide: (Introduction to Anatomy, Chemistry, Cell) Note: 90 % of the exam will come from this review guide. 10% will come from masteringaandp.com, the text or material covered in the lecture and not posted on the lecture slides.

Introduction to Anatomy
• What is the definition of anatomy?
• What is the definition of physiology?
• What is homeostasis?
• What are the two ways in which homeostasis is maintained? • What are the directional terms used to find things in the body? o For example, what are the medical terms for the following? o Up/down

o Right/left
o Close/far
o Closer to the midline/farther from the midline
o Same side/opposite side
o Face up/face down
o Etc. (maybe more)
• What are the major cavities of the body?
• What are the planes of the body?
• What are the body regions?
o For example, what are the medical terms for the following? o Arm
o Forearm
o Wrist
o Hand
o Fingers
o Thumb
o Elbow
o Front of elbow
o Point of elbow
o Thigh
o Knee
o Knee cap
o Leg
o Calf
o Foot
o Sole of foot
o Head
o Neck
o Chest
o Lungs
o Heart
o Groin
o Pelvis (front)
o Low back
o Buttocks
o Etc. (maybe more)
• What are the four abdominal quadrants and what major organs are found in each quadrant? • What are the levels of organization and what is the order?

Chemistry
• What are the four major elements of the body?
• What are the lesser or trace elements of the body?
• What are the three subatomic particles and what charge do they carry? • What is an isotope?
• What is the difference between an atom and an element? • What are the three major types of chemical bonds? How do they differ? o Give examples for each.
• What three atoms are associated with hydrogen bonding? • What are the two major types of chemical reactions?
• Do you make or use energy when you make a bond? Break a bond? • What is the difference between a catalyst and an enzyme? • What is the major atom/element contained in organic compounds? • What is an acid?

• What is a base?
• What is pH the measure of?
• If aspirin is a weakly acidic drug, where is it most likely to be absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract? Why? • Is lemon juice an example of an acid or a base?
• Is household chlorine an example of an acid or a base? • What are the four major types of organic compounds?
• What are examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides? • What are examples of lipids?
• What are examples of proteins?
• What are the building blocks of proteins?
• What do proteins contain that carbohydrates and lipids do not? • What are the two major types of nucleic acids?
• What are the two major types of purines?
• What are the three major types of pyrimidines?
• Which purines are bonded to which pyrimidines? How many hydrogen bond hold them together? • What is DNA?
• What is RNA?
• What are the nucleotides (chains of nucleic acids) composed of? • What are the two major parts of metabolism?
• What are the high compounds which store energy?

Cells
• What is the plasma membrane composed of?
• What is the function of the plasma membrane?
• What are the two different types of plasma membrane proteins? • What are the three functions of membrane proteins?
• Where are glycolipids only found?
• What are the three major types of membrane junctions? o What are their functions
• What is osmosis?
• What is diffusion?
• What are the two major types?
• What is active...
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