Functional Anatomy of Endocrine Glands

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S H E E T
EXERCISE

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Functional Anatomy of the Endocrine Glands
Gross Anatomy and Basic Function of the Endocrine Glands
1. Both the endocrine and nervous systems are major regulating systems of the body; however, the nervous system has been compared to an airmail delivery system and the endocrine system to the pony express. Briefly explain this comparison. The nervous system employs electrochemical impulses to bring about rapid control, whereas the endo system is more

slowly acting with hormones.

Substance secreted by the endrocrine tissues into the blood that acts to target tissue to produce 2. Define hormone. specific response

3. Chemically, hormones belong chiefly to two molecular groups, the and the amino acid-bases

steroids
.

4. What do all hormones have in common?

5. Define target organ.

organs that respond to a particular hormone

Ability of the target tissue to 6. If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don’t all tissues respond to all hormones? respond depends on the ability of the hormone to bind with specific receptors on cells plasma membrane or within the cell 7. Identify the endocrine organ described by each of the following statements.

thyroid adrenal pancreas testes parathyroid gland ovary
thymus pineal gland

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus found close to the kidney a mixed gland, located close to the stomach and small intestine paired glands suspended in the scrotum ride “horseback” on the thyroid gland found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth found in the roof of the third ventricle 179

8. For each statement describing hormonal effects, identify the hormone(s) involved by choosing a number from key A, and note the hormone’s site of production with a letter from key B. More than one hormone may be involved in some cases. For example: Key A: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ACTH ADH aldosterone calcitonin cortisone epinephrine estrogens FSH glucagon insulin 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. LH oxytocin progesterone prolactin PTH T4 /T3 testosterone

16

,

L

basal metabolism hormone Key B: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. adrenal cortex adrenal medulla anterior pituitary hypothalamus ovaries pancreas parathyroid glands pineal gland posterior pituitary testes thymus thyroid gland

18. thymosin

19. TSH

18
,
4

k
g

1. programming of T lymphocytes and and and

15
,
6

b
b

,
5 a

2. regulate blood calcium levels 3. released in response to stressors 4. drive development of secondary sexual characteristics

,
7 e

,
17 j

,

, ,

1
,
19

c
;
c

8

c

11
; ,

c
; and

,
6 b

5. regulate the function of another endocrine gland 6. mimics the sympathetic nervous system and and and and

,
9 f

10
,
13

f
e

,
7 e

7. regulate blood glucose levels; produced by the same “mixed” gland 8. directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle 9. maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid 10. directly involved in milk production and ejection

,
2 d

,
3 a

,
12 d

,
14 c

,

,

9. Although the pituitary gland is often referred to as the master gland of the body, the hypothalamus exerts some control over the pituitary gland. How does the hypothalamus control both anterior and posterior pituitary functioning?

The hypothalmus controls anterior pituitary functioning by neuro secretions. These hormones are liberated into hypophyseal portal system and carried to cells of the anterior pituitar where they control the release of anterior pituitary hormones. and controls posterior pituitary functioning by storing the ones transported by the axons of neurons in the

180

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