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Baranganic Period

Social Structure
1. Nobility – Maharlika
2. Freemen – Timawa
3. Serfs – Aliping namamahay
4. Slaves – Aliping sagigilid

Barangay
- A unit of social organization that is broader than the family’s political, economic and religious features.

Datu/Rajah/Sultan
- exercise all the powers of government including the religious power - he is assisted by the Pandays and Babaylans together with the council of elders in instituting reforms and development.

Judicial process (composed of the council of elders)
- arbitration is the common ways of resolving disputes - Public trial (“May the crocodile eat me if I tell a lie. May the lightning strike me if I tell my falsehood”). - Trial by ordeal – to show that God with His infinite wisdom, protect the innocent and punish the guilty (e.g., ordeal by wrestling or “bultong” in fugao)

Religious belief
- people worship according to the dictate of their conscience. The priest (Katalona) or the Priestesses (Babaylan) performed sacrifices. Example: Canao Economic and standard of living
- agriculture and trade
Education
- Father trained his son to be hunters, builders, etc. - Mother trained her daughter do household task.

Spanish Colonization

End of the reconquestas (wars against the moors) 1492
• Paved the way for the great voyages including the discovery of the New World (America) for Spain • Purtagal and Spain – two keen rivals in colonizing new lands because of gold, spices, and other merchandise found in the orient, as well as their religious zeal to proselyte the native. • Pope Alexander VI – issued a “papal bull” or “Inter Caetera”, a decree to settle the rivalry giving the west to Spanish zone for exploration and all lands East to Portugal. • Magellan (Portuguese) – conceived the idea of a passage to the west or around south America to reach Moluccas or Spice Islands following the wind...