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Baranganic Period

Social Structure
1. Nobility – Maharlika
2. Freemen – Timawa
3. Serfs – Aliping namamahay
4. Slaves – Aliping sagigilid

Barangay
- A unit of social organization that is broader than the family’s political, economic and religious features.

Datu/Rajah/Sultan
- exercise all the powers of government including the religious power - he is assisted by the Pandays and Babaylans together with the council of elders in instituting reforms and development.

Judicial process (composed of the council of elders)
- arbitration is the common ways of resolving disputes - Public trial (“May the crocodile eat me if I tell a lie. May the lightning strike me if I tell my falsehood”). - Trial by ordeal – to show that God with His infinite wisdom, protect the innocent and punish the guilty (e.g., ordeal by wrestling or “bultong” in fugao)

Religious belief
- people worship according to the dictate of their conscience. The priest (Katalona) or the Priestesses (Babaylan) performed sacrifices. Example: Canao Economic and standard of living
- agriculture and trade
Education
- Father trained his son to be hunters, builders, etc. - Mother trained her daughter do household task.

Spanish Colonization

End of the reconquestas (wars against the moors) 1492
• Paved the way for the great voyages including the discovery of the New World (America) for Spain • Purtagal and Spain – two keen rivals in colonizing new lands because of gold, spices, and other merchandise found in the orient, as well as their religious zeal to proselyte the native. • Pope Alexander VI – issued a “papal bull” or “Inter Caetera”, a decree to settle the rivalry giving the west to Spanish zone for exploration and all lands East to Portugal. • Magellan (Portuguese) – conceived the idea of a passage to the west or around south America to reach Moluccas or Spice Islands following the wind directions and Ocean tides.

Marianas Island or Islas Ladrones (Island of thieves)

Suluan Island – stay overnight

Islet of Humunu (Homonhon) at the mouth of the Leyte Gulf, meet natives from neighboring island of Suluan.

Masao, Butuan, Agusan del Norte
- the fleet landed on March 28, 1521
- performed kasi-kasi (Rajah Kolombu) on March 29, 1521 - first mass was held on March 31, 1521

Sugbo Cebu
- with King Kolombu, Magellan performed kasi-kasi with Rajah Humabon who later on was baptized due to Christian teaching of honoring parents

Council of Indies (Concejo de Indios)
- through which Spain administered political affairs in the Philippines - vested with the legislative, executive, and judicial powers

Governor-General
- appointed by the viceroy of Mexico and later by the Spanish Monarch (King) - Captain General
- Vice-royal Patron
- President of the Royal Audiencia (Supreme Court)
- head of the central government

Provinces:
1. Alcaldea – a pacified provinces headed by the alcalde mayor 2. Corregemiento – Unpacified provinces headed by corregidores/military officers.

Pueblos:
1. Ayuntamiento – city/cities headed by the cabildo (composed of 1 or 2 mayor/s, chief constable & secretary) 1. Munisepyo/municipal government – headed by the gobernadorcillo (the highest position that a Filipino can held during the Spanish colonization

Barrio
– barangay headed by the cabiza de barangay

Visitador-General
- The investigating officer sent by the King of Spain to check the conditions and look into administrative complains against the government officials.

Sources of government funds
- Incomienda System - political jurisdiction by which the King of Spain granted rights to incomiendas (incomienderos) who are supposed to help in the settlement of a country as a reward of service - Incomiendero – collect taxes, promote the welfare...
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