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AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES
Question 3
Industrial location models are used to explain geographic patterns of economic activity. The maps above show automobile factories built before and after 1986 in the United States. Part A (2 points) Identify TWO changes in the geography of automobile factory construction shown by the maps. 1. International-based change in the geography of plant construction a. Increase in the number/investment of foreign-owned automobile plants OR b. Increase in both small and especially larger-size, foreign-owned automobile plants Note: Students cannot earn 2 points for listing two international-based changes. 2. Domestic-based change in the geography of plant construction a. Increase in the number/investment of automobile plants in the South or Southeast part (Sun Belt) of the United States b. Increase in number/investment of automobile plants built away from the traditional core of the American manufacturing belt (Rust Belt) c. Decrease in the number of American-owned automobile plants d. Decrease in the number/investment of automobile plants west of the Mississippi River Notes • Students cannot earn credit by simply counting the change in number of plants per state. • Students may earn 2 points for identifying TWO domestic-based changes. Part B (4 points) Identify and explain TWO factors related to industrial location that may have contributed to the changes. Identification (1 point each) 1. Low-cost labor (not low-skilled or uneducated workforce) 2. Market Explanation (1 point each) • More nonunionized labor in the South (or Southeast or Sun Belt). • Right-to-work states in the South (or Southeast or Sun Belt). • More foreign-owned companies to minimize shipping costs (cheaper transportation costs). • More foreign-owned companies to avoid paying federally imposed tariffs. • United States represents one of the world’s largest markets for automobile consumption. • Shifting or relocation of automobile plants because of high labor costs (unions) in the North. • Obsolete infrastructure in the North (or Rust Belt). • Outsourcing — domestic companies shifting from states in the North to Mexico.

3. Deindustrialization (North only)

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

AP® HUMAN GEOGRAPHY 2011 SCORING GUIDELINES
Question 3 (continued)
4. Government policies • Economic and development incentives — pro-industrial policies. • Connection to preexisting infrastructure systems — e.g., access to interstate highways, rail spurs, water/sewage/electricity. • State and local taxes — lower in the South, higher in the North. • Variances on zoning and environmental regulations. • Accessible and available sites in the South cost less than accessible and available sites in the North. • Cost-efficient interstate highway systems in the South (or Southeast or Sun Belt). • Cost-efficient rail system in the South (or Southeast or Sun Belt). • Allows quick and inexpensive assembly of supplies for the manufacture of automobiles and efficient distribution of automobiles to car dealerships. • Facilitates just-in-time production. • Abundant, inexpensive supplies of energy in the South. • South (or Southeast) is below the national average for $/kWh.

5. Cheap land 6. Available infrastructure

7. Cheap energy

Note: No identification or explanation points should be awarded for the mention of raw materials.

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

© 2011 The College Board. Visit the College Board on the Web: www.collegeboard.org.

© 2011 The College Board....
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