Franco-Prussian War

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Franco Prussian War: July 1870-January 1871

Louis Napoleon surrenders to Prussians in September 1870 •Sept4: Parisians declare 3rd Republic
oGovernment Of National Defense instituted
Government flees Paris to Bordeaux
Offers no help for Paris

Siege of Paris begins by mid-September
oMost well to do have left city
Servants and workers are a majority---Unusual
oPublic meetings legal again
oStarvation Increases
oEconomy falters
oCold and Disease

oDecember: Bombardment begins
oJanuary 1871: French government surrenders city
Germany declares itself a nation of Versailles
French government will not return to Paris---remains at Versailles

February: French National Assembly elections
oDeclares all debts and rents accrued during siege within 1 month •Threatens at least 40,000 small businesses with bankruptcy

1871 Paris Commune

March 18-May 28, 1871
Working people of Paris expelled government troops from the city •Declared their own government
Battled French troops over 2 ½ months in what was:
oRevolution
oCivil War
oSocio-economic and political experiment
By May 22:
oFrench Government troops entered Paris
oAnnihilated the Commune
oOften target women “Communardes”

Evolution of Thought: Darwin, Spencer, and the Sexes

Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
On the Origin of Species (1859)
Animals evolved through variation and natural selection
Those most fit to survive

The Descent of Man (1871)
Applied theory directly to question of human evolution
Humans capable of advancement
Virtuous tendencies can be inherited
Civilized races and those still savages

Militarization

Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Triple Entente: France, Russia, eventually Britain

1890-1914: Most all European armed forces grew

Mostly conscripts will fill ranks
oBritain is exception (until WWI)
oIf men are citizen-soldiers, should they have a say?

1880-1900: Tonnage of warships doubles
Since mid-19 century: New weaponry
oAircraft developing
oChemicals
oTanks
oMachine guns
oBarbed wire
oPage 828

Nationalism
oMilitant
oGlobal
Turkey, Viet Nam, Middle East (Primary Sources)

Moving Towards War
Popular Militarism
oBoy Scouts develop
Increased suspicion of non-nationals/ foreigners in Europe and U.S. •Pro-Nationalism
oConcern: Nation not producing enough able-bodied men
STDs
oMoves to increase aid for food, shelter, medical attention for poor •Suffrage growing for men
oWith exception of Finland and Norway, women excluded
Literacy increases: understood to be in national interest

The Modern
What does it mean?
What parts of society are affected?
oExamples from text or otherwise?
New woman as indicator of significant changes
oWhat did term mean?
oWork
oFashion
oEducation- Marie Claire
oCultural shifts- but not for everyone
Psychology: Sigmund Freud
Mass media and Mass culture

Arts
oWhat is changing?
oArt Nouveau
oWriting: Oscar Wilde
oVisual Arts
oDance
Modern Dance
As opposed to what? Ballet

WWI The Great War

Nietzsche 1844-1900
oHad argued against Enlightenment view that humans are rational oBy 1870, European civilization increasingly creating new model of Human Nature •Freud 1856-1939
oApplies (post) Newtonian idea that social universe could be mapped oAdds that there is an unconscious universe that can be mapped to oWWI alters Freud’s optimistic view of human potential
WWI War itself had changed
oConscription 18-45 years old
o10 Military soldiers died; plus wounded, mutilated, psychotically destroyed •U.S enters late: 300,000 casualties
Percent of total greater than 4 years of WWII for US
oWeaponry has changed
Designed for mass killing, not precision
Ex. 1st 4 days of war: French lost 140,000 soldiers
Ex. At Verdun: 10 month standoff
oFrench prevail only after...
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