Foundations: C. 8000 B.C.E.–600 C.E.

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Foundations: c. 8000 B.C.E.–600 C.E.

Major Developments

1. Locating world history in the environment and time
1. Environment
1. Geography and climate: Interaction of geography and climate with the development of human society a. Five Themes of Geography – consider these 1. Relative location – location compared to others 2. Physical characteristics – climate, vegetation and human characteristics 3. Human/environment interaction – how do humans interact/alter environ a. Leads to change

4. Movement – peoples, goods, ideas among/between groups 5. Regions – cultural/physical characteristics in common with surrounding areas b. E. Africa first people – 750,000 years ago started to move 1. moving in search of food

c. Role of Climate – End of Ice Age 12000 BCE – large areas of N. America, Europe, Asia became habitable – big game hunters already migrated 1. Geographical changes - 3000 BCE Green Sahara began to dry up, seeds to forests – N. America 2. Effect on humans – nomadic hunters didn’t move so much a. Settle near abundant plant life – beginning of civilization b. Sedentary life w/ dependable food supply 3. milder conditions, warmer temperatures, higher ocean levels 2. Demography: Major population changes resulting from human and environmental factors 1. 2 million people during Ice Age – allowed for growth 1. big game gone

2. more usable land available
2. 50-100 million by 1000 CE
3. Regional changes altered skin color, race type, quantity of body hair 2. Time
1. Periodization in early human history
1. Early Hominids – humans 3.5 million years ago 1. Australopithecus – Lucy – found in Africa 1. Bipedalism
2. sizable brain
3. Larynx – voice box
2. 3 million – homo habilis – handy human – crude stone tools 3. 1 million - homo erectus – upright human a. First to migrate

b. Clothed selves – skins/furs 4. 100,000 to 250,000 – homo sapiens – wise human a. social groups
b. permanent, semi-permanent buildings 5. 100,000 to 200,000 – homo sapiens, sapiens a. Out of Africa – started in Africa and migrated b. Multiregional thesis – all developed independently 2. Stone Age – First period of prehistory - Tool use separates hominids from ancestors 1. Paleolithic – Old Stone Age – 10,000 to 2.5 million years ago 1. Crude tools – clubs, axes, bones for shelter, protection, food, cloth 2. Natural shelters – cave/canyons 1. Began tentlike structures/huts 2. Wooden/stone structures by Mesolithic 3. 1 million years ago – fire 4. Warfare – rocks, clubs – food preparation tools used for combat 1. Weapons found in bones 5. Clothes from hides/furs and later plant fibers a. Dying cloth for color

6. Families, clans, tribes
a. Select sexual partners – not seasonal b. Long term sexual bonds – emotions +...
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