CEIC2001 – Fluid Mechanics Notes
Fluid – A substance which is capable of flowing. A fluid is also a substance which has no permanent resistance to change in shape i.e. a solid can resist a shear stress, τ by static deflection; a fluid cannot, any shear stress applied to a fluid will result in the motion of that fluid for as long as the shear stress is applied. τ=FA

Where F = force which is tangent to a surface (shear force), A = area of moving plate in which shear force is applied to. Velocity gradient – is the change of velocity with distance. If applied shear force is changed, the shear stress is also changed, which results in a new velocity gradient being established. dvdy

Boundary conditions of fluids in contact with a wall, the fluid velocity, v = 0. Fluid Continuum – the variation in properties is so smooth that differential calculus can be used to analyse the substance. The physical problem is approached by treating the fluid as a continuous media and using the average effect of many molecules to solve the problems. A fluid may be considered a continuum when there is a large volume of molecules and very little space between them, since fluids take the shape of the volume they are in. Also, the distance between the molecules (mean free path) is very large compared with the molecular diameter. (http://books.google.com.au/books?id=nCnifcUdNp4C&pg=PA295&lpg=PA295&dq=torque%2Bsprinkler%2Bflowing%2Bwater%2Bfluid%2Bmechanics&source=bl&ots=3zBaQQJDqd&sig=eJi8djtyHKmZI8SlDEeevthsMzs&hl=en&ei=1buETfe0IYbRcf7j4ZAD&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CBgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false)

...EXAM 1 NOTES
The actual pressure at a given position is called the absolute pressure, and it is measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.e., absolute zero pressure). Most pressure-measuring devices, however, are calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere (Fig. 3–2), and so they indicate the difference between the absolute pressure and the local atmospheric pressure. This difference is called the gage pressure. Pgage = Pabs - Patm
The pressure at a point in a...

...Fluid Report 2
In the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation, the assumption of the inviscid and incompressible flow is used. However in the real case, the viscosity cannot be neglect and the density of the flow is not always constant. Thus Bernoulli’s equation is not always correct. For the lab, it is reasonable to assume the flow is inviscid and incompressible. Firstly, the pitot was placed at the center of the flow. The skin friction (effect of viscosity) is inversely...

...CHAPTER 1: FLUID PROPERTIES
LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this topic, you should be able to: Define Fluid State differences between solid and fluid Calculate common fluid properties: i. Mass density ii. Specific weight iii. Relative density iv. Dynamic viscosity v. Kinematic viscosity
INTRODUCTION
FluidMechanics
Gas Liquids Statics
i
F 0 F 0
i
Laminar/ Turbulent
Dynamics
,...

...16/11/2011
FluidMechanics - 4 Real Fluids
1
Contents
Introduction Objectives Real Fluid Types of Flow Laminar Flow Turbulent Flow
2
1
16/11/2011
Introduction
In the earlier chapter, the basic equations of continuity and energy were introduced and applied to fluid flow cases where the assumption of frictionless flow (or ideal fluid flow) was made. It is now necessary to introduce...

...Notes For the First Year Lecture Course:
An Introduction to FluidMechanics
School of Civil Engineering, University of Leeds. CIVE1400 FLUIDMECHANICS Dr Andrew Sleigh May 2001 Table of Contents 0.
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
CONTENTS OF THE MODULE
Objectives: Consists of: Specific Elements: Books: Other Teaching Resources. Civil Engineering FluidMechanics System of units The SI...

...Continuum Hypothesis in FluidMechanics
The macroscopic behavior of fluids makes them appear to be continuous. However, when viewed at the microscopic scale fluids cannot be viewed as continuous. The fluid under consideration will have molecules bombarding each other. It is not possible to declare the fluid velocity at a point as there is no guarantee that the fluid molecules are present at...

...FluidMechanics
Laboratory 2
Report
Robby Joseph
14103508
1.0 Introduction
This experiment was undertaken for the study of flow in pipes and the factors that affect it in both laminar and turbulent regimes. The transitional regime between laminar and turbulent flow will also be studied. The experiment was done using a pipe with a known diameter, and water was pumped in from a tank. Throughout the process, measurements of the quantity of water and...