Fisiology

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  • Topic: Stomach, Duodenum, Peritoneum
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ANATOMY OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: STOMACH & SMALL INTESTINE

SCHOOL OF HEALTH SCIENCES HEALTH CAMPUS UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

OBJECTIVES

 At the end of this lecture, the students should understand:

1) Introduction to Lower Gastrointestinal (GI) Tract 2) Gross Anatomy of Stomach 3) Relations Blood Supply, Lymphatic Drainage & Nerve Relations, Supply

Supply of Stomach 4) Gross Anatomy of Small Intestine 5) Bl d Supply, Lymphatic Drainage & Nerve Supply of Blood S l L h i D i N S l f Small Intestine

INTRODUCTION OF DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 The organs involved in the g

breakdown of food  It has two anatomical subdivisions: a) Digestive tract b) Accessory organs

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 Digestive tract
 

 i.

ii.

Alimentary canal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract A tube extending from g mouth to anus (~ 9 meters long in cadaver) It includes; ; Upper GIT oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus Lower GIT stomach, small intestine, large intestine (aliment = food)

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 Accessory organs y g

They include; i. teeth ii. tongue t iii. salivary glands iv. liver v. gall bladder vi. pancreas 

* produce variety of secretions to contribute to breakdown of f d t ff b kd f foodstuffs

STOMACH
 Old names = grinding

chamber, fermentation vat, cooking pot  Dilated portion of alimentary canal between esophagus and small intestine (d d i t ti (duodenum) )  Site – it lies inferior to diaphragm in the epigastric, umbilical & left hypochondriac of the abdomen

Location of Stomach
Midclavicular lines Midsternal line

Subscostal line (10th costal cartilages) Umbilicus Transtubercular line (iliac tubercles)

Subscostal line

Anterior view showing location of abdominopelvic regions Anterior view showing location of abdominopelvic regions

Functions of Stomach
Stomach a) stores the food we ate b) breaks down the food into a liquidly mixture c) mix with enzymes which is chemical that breaks down food d) slowly empty that liquidly mixture into the small intestine

STOMACH
Capacity
 E Empty = 50 ml of f d t l f food  After meals = 1.0 to 1.5 L  Extremely full = up to 4 L y p T1
Cardiac/ p g esophageal sphincter

Extension
 It extends between the level

of T11 & L1 vertebra f t b  Upper end continues with esophagus through cardiac p g g sphincter  Lower end continues with duodenum through pyloric sphincter

Pyloric sphincter

L1

GROSS ANATOMY OF STOMACH
 Shape = pear shaped or “J”

shaped (upper part is broader than lower part)  It has two ends; i. Cardic end ii. Pyloric end  It has two surfaces; i. Anterior ii. ii Posterior  It has two curvatures; i. Lesser curvature ii. Greater curvature

Cardiac end

Lesser curvature

Greater curvature Pyloric end

GROSS ANATOMY OF STOMACH
Lesser curvature (LC)  f forms right border of stomach i ht b d f t h (concave medial border)  extends from cardiac orifice to pylorus l  it is suspended from liver by lesser omentum Greater curvature (GC)  forms longer convex lateral border of stomach  gastrosplenic omentum extends from upper part of GC to spleen  greater omentum extends from g lower part of GC to transverse colon

(Omentum = fat skin)

GROSS ANATOMY OF STOMACH
 Stomach is covered by peritoneum (intraperitoneal organ)  Peritoneum leaves lesser curvature as l lesser omentum & greater curvature as greater omentum  Peritoneum = serous membrane that lines abdominal cavity & covers viscera within it  Omentum = a fold of p peritoneum

Greater omentum is shown in its normal position covering most of abdominal viscera

Lesser omentum attaching liver to lesser curvature of stomach

Mesentery of small intestine

Greater Omentum
Falciform ligament Liver Gallbladder Spleen Stomach Ligamentum teres Greater omentum (anterior to SI)

Small intestine

Cecum

Lesser Omentum
Liver Gallbladder Lesser omentum
(extend from liver to LC)

Stomach Duodenum Transverse colon Small intestine

Cecum...
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