First two chapters of A&P I

Topics: Feedback, Atom, Human anatomy Pages: 19 (6522 words) Published: October 26, 2013
Chapter One – The human Body: An Orientation (we will assume that the subject is a healthy 22 year old female 125lbs or male 155lbs. I.Define and contrast anatomy and physiology: Anatomy provides is a static image of the body’s architecture vs. Physiology which reveals the body’s dynamic and animated workings. a.Anatomy: (derived from the Greek words “to cut apart”) is the study of the structures of the body parts and their relationship to one another. The essential tools for studying anatomy are 1) the mastery of anatomical terminology 2) observation 3) manipulation and in a living person, palpation and 4) auscultation (listening to organ sounds with a stethoscope). Subdivisions of anatomy: i.GROSS OR MACROSCOPIC ANATOMY is the study of large body structures visible to the naked eye: 1.REGIONAL ANATOMY: all the structures in a particular region of the body are examined at the same time. 2.SYSTEMIC ANATOMY: body structures are studied system by system. 3.SURFACE ANATOMY: the study of the internal structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface. ii.MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY deals with structures too small to be seen by the naked eye: 1.CYTOLOGY: cells.

2.HISTOLOGY: tissues.
3.MOLECULAR BIOLOGY: sub-cellular level.
iii.DEVELOPMENTAL ANATOMY: traces structural changes that occur in the body throughout the life spana: 1.EMBRYOLOGY: concerns developmental changes that occur before birth. 2.PATHOLOGY: studies structural changes caused by disease. 3.RADIOLOGY: studies internal structures as visualized by x-ray images or specialized scanning procedures. b.PHYSIOLOGY studies how the body parts work and carry out life sustaining activities. It has many subdivisions but most of them consider the operation of specific organ systems. Physiology often focuses on events at the cellular or molecular level because the body’s abilities depend on those of its individual cells, and the cell’s abilities ultimately depend on the chemical reactions that go on within them. Physiology also rests on principles of physics, which help to explain electrical currents, blood pressure and the way muscles use bones to cause body movements, among other things. II.Discuss how the human body is organized

III.Review needs and functional processes common to all living organisms: the FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS necessary to maintain life in humans: a.MAINTAIN THEIR BOUNDARIES
b.MOVE
c.RESPOND TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES
d.TAKE IN AND DIGEST NUTRIENTS
e.CARRY OUT METABOLISM
f.DISPOSE OF WASTE
g.REPRODUCE THEMSELVES AND
h.GROW.
IV.The THREE ESSENTIAL CONCEPTS THAT WILL UNIFY AND FORM THE FOUNDATION OF THE STUDY OF THE HUMAN BODY: a.The COMPLIMENTARILY OF STRUCTURE and function: function always reflects structure. What a structure can do depends on its specific form. b.The HIERARCHY OF STRUCTURE ORGANIZATION:

i.CHEMICAL LEVEL: this simplest level. At this level, atoms, tiny building blocks of matter combine to form molecules such as water and proteins. ii.Cellular level: cells are the smallest units of a living thing. All body cells are interdependent. Molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles which are the basic components of the microscopic cells. iii.Tissue level: groups of similar cells that have a common function. There are four basic types in the human body: 1.Epithelium: covers the surface of the body and lines its cavities. 2.Muscle: movement within and throughout the body

3.Connective tissue: supports and protects organs.
4.Nervous tissue: means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electoral impulses. iv.Organ level: Extremely complex function is become possible at this level. An organ is a discrete structure composed of at least two tissue types (4 is more common) that performs a specific function for the body. A specialized functional center responsible for a necessary activity that no other organ can perform. v.Organ system level: organs that...
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