Final Exam Study Guide (Roman Republic to Augustus)

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Founding of Rome: The story of Romulus and Remus and the story of The Rape of the Sabine Women * res publica- “people’s business”; Republican Period- 509 – 44/31 BCE Location of Rome: perfectly placed between the Etruscans, the Latins, and the Greeks * gave access to cultural advancement; Romans borrowed many things from the 3 groups * Rome was far enough inland to avoid direct assault from the sea but had access to water and its port city Ostia from the Tiber River Struggle of the Orders: the plebeians (commoner) rebelled against the patricians (aristocrat) for more equal rights * patricians were determined by birth, not wealth; plebeians could influence the patricians because Rome had a citizen militia at the time and there were more plebeians than patricians * Twelve Tables compiled by Decemvirs; a code of Roman laws that applied to citizens * some reforms include: marriage legalized between orders, plebeians eligible for consulship, debt slavery abolished, plebiscites are binding to all citizens etc. * SPQR- “Senatus Populusque Romanus” or “The Senate and the People of Rome” * fasces- axe bundled in scrolls- symbol of the republic govern. and the consuls’ powers (military, religious, and imperial ) * some reforms included: 1) 342 BCE- at least one consul had to be plebeian 2) 326 BCE- debt slavery abolished

3) 287 BCE- plebeiscites were binding to all citizens
The Punic Wars: the three wars fought against Carthage that eventually led to a large a expansion of Roman territory and the eventual change of the Roman army * 387 BCE- Rome is sacked by Gauls; this event created the influence that if Rome does not overtake other city-states, it will be destroyed – defensive aggression * before Punic Wars, Roman army = all citizens that fought when nessessary * 4th or 3rd century BCE, Rome eventually fought a war every year and needed a full-time army * co-optation- the idea that when conquered nations or allies of Rome...
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