Final Exam Study Guide
1. Analects- book of Confucius’ sayings and ideas; written during the Warring States period by his disciples (475-221 BC) and achieved its final form during the mid-Han dynasty; one of the central texts of Confucianism 2. Lao-Tzu- a philosopher of ancient China, best known as the author of the Tao Te Ching. His association with the Tào Té Chīng has led him to be traditionally considered the founder of philosophical Taoism. He is also revered as a deity in most religious forms of Taoist philosophy 3. Zhou- a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty. Although the Zhou Dynasty lasted longer than any other dynasty in Chinese history, the actual political and military control of China by the Ji (Chinese: 姬) family lasted only until 771 BC, a period known as the Western Zhou. During the Zhou Dynasty, the use of iron was introduced to China, though this period of Chinese history produced what many consider the zenith of Chinese bronze-ware making. The dynasty also spans the period in which the written script evolved into its modern form with the use of an archaic clerical script that emerged during the late Warring States period. 4. “Mandate of Heaven”- a traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rulers. It is similar to the European concept of the divine right of kings, in that both sought to legitimize rule from divine approval; however, the Mandate of Heaven is predicated on the conduct of the ruler in question. It says that heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, as defined by the Five Confucian Relationships, but would be displeased with a despotic ruler and would withdraw its mandate, leading to the overthrow of that ruler. The Mandate of Heaven would then transfer to those who would rule best. 5. Moche- flourished in northern Peru with its capital Huacas del Sol y de la Luna, from about 100 AD to 800 AD. They are particularly noted for their elaborately painted ceramics, gold work, monumental constructions and irrigation systems. Moche history may be broadly divided into three periods – the emergence of the Moche culture in Early Moche (AD 100–300), its expansion and florescence during Middle Moche (AD 300–600), and the urban nucleation and subsequent collapse in Late Moche (AD 500–750). Moche society was agriculturally based, with a significant level of investment in the construction of a network of irrigation canals for the diversion of river water to supply their crops. Their culture was sophisticated; and their artifacts express their lives, with detailed scenes of hunting, fishing, fighting, sacrifice, sexual encounters and elaborate ceremonies. 6. Aztec- ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica from the 14th to 16th centuries. Much more warlike and aggressive compared to Mayans; settled on the island Texcoco; made floating gardens called Chinampas to accommodate growing population; capital Tenochtitlan; worshiped the god Quetzalcoatl. 7. Machu Picchu- a pre-Columbian 15th-century Inca. Machu Picchu is located in the Cusco Region of Peru, South America. It is situated on a mountain ridge above the Urubamba Valley in Peru. The Incas started building the "estate" around 1400, but abandoned it as an official site for the Inca rulers a century later at the time of the Spanish Conquest. 8. San-
9. Petrarch- an Italian scholar and poet, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages". 10. Valla- proved the falsity of the so-called Donation of Constantine; total reconstruction of the theory of education: aim of education should be to produce men who show their own personality and to change the world no matter what career they followed, stressed education in...
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