Final Exam Study Guide
1. Life Span Development is from birth throughout adulthood as well as childhood. The traditional approach emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age. A great deal of change does occur in the six decades after adolescence. 2. Life expectancy has increased because of the recent changes in human life expectancy. The upper boundary of the human life span is 122 years; this maximum human life span has not changed since the beginning of the recorded history. In the 20th century life expectancy increased by 31 years, thanks to improvements in sanitation, nutrition, and medicine. They say it could decrease in the future due to obesity. 3. Characteristics of Life Span Approach: Lifelong, Multidimensional, Multidirectional, Plastic, Multidisciplinary, Contextual, Growth, Maintenance, and Regulation of Loss; Co construction of Biology, Culture, and the Individual. Nonnormative life events: unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life. 4. Nature-Nurture development: the key to development is the interaction of nature and nurture. Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance, nurture to its environmental experiences. 5. Science: All scientific knowledge stems from a rigorous, systematic method of investigation. The scientific method is a four step process: 1. conceptualize a process or problem to be studied. 2. Collect research information (data). 3. Analyze data. 4. Draw conclusions. 6. Compare Erikson and Freud’s Theory of activity throughout the life span. Freud: 1. Birth to 1 ½ years oral stage (mouth). 2. 1 ½ to 3 years anal stage (anus) 3. 3 to 6 years phallic stage (genitals) 4. 6 to puberty latency stage (development of social and intellectual skills/repress sexual interest) 5. puberty onward genital stage (sexual reawakening; source of sexual fantasy becomes someone out of family) Erikson: integrity vs. despair late adulthood 60s onward; generativity vs. stagnation middle adulthood; intimacy vs. isolation early adulthood; identity vs. identity confusion adolescence; industry vs. inferiority middle and late childhood; initiative vs. guilt early childhood; autonomy vs. shame and doubt infancy 1 to 3 years; trust vs. mistrust infancy 1st year. 7. Criticisms of cognitive theory (Piaget): Piaget’s stages are not as uniform as he theorized; he also underestimated the cognitive skills of infants and overestimated the cognitive skills of adolescents; the cognitive theories do not give adequate attention to individual variations in cognitive development; information-processing theory does not provide an adequate description of developmental changes in cognition. Psychoanalytic theorists argue that the cognitive theories do not give enough credit to unconscious thought. 8. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory holds that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems. The theory identifies five environmental systems: Microsystem; Mesosystem; exosystem; macrosystem; chronosystem. Contributions: a systematic examination of macro and micro dimensions of environmental systems; attention to connections between environmental settings (mesosystem); consideration of sociohistorical influences on development (chronosystem) 9. Cross sectional approach: a research strategy in which individuals of different ages are compared at one time. Longitudinal approach: a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more. 10. Natural selection is the evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the ones that survive and reproduce. Charles Darwin; adaptive behavior is behavior that promotes an organism’s survival in the natural habitat. 11. Different chromosomal pairing: XX female, XY male; 23 paired chromosomes 12. Males are vulnerable...
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