Final Exam Complete Civics Review

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Civics
Historical Developments of Rights :
Civil Rights : Equality before the law. Liberty of Person. Freedom of speech Political Rights : Participate in elections. Right to vote. Ability to run for elected office Social Rights : 1960 : Canadian Bill of Rights. 1982 : Canadian Charter of rights and freedoms. Divine Rights of Kings Since monarchs get their power directly from God, you annot question decisions of your king because that is a blasphemy. You are indirectly questioning God, and it is treason against your Divinely instituted King. Levels of Government

Federal state : a system of government where there is a divison of power and shared responsibilities. Unitary state : A sysem of government where there is no division of power. Federal :defense Provincial : Education Local : Snow removal Native :

Canada`s Constitution :
A framework that outlines the structure of government, and defines the powers and limits of the government and is the highest law in the country; all other laws must conform to it. The British North America Act (BNA ACT) 1867 was our first constitution. Provinces entered confederation at different times. Patriation means to make the constitution Canadian.

It essentially remained the same except that it added two items : The charter of rights and Freedoms and an amending formula. Changing the constituion requires three things : 1- Approval of the federal government.

2- Approval of 7+ provincial governments.
3- Those 7= governments must represent at least 50% +1 of the total population.

Canada`s Constitutional Monarchy :
Monarchy : The head of state is born into the position.
Republic : The head of state is elected into the position by the people. Main People :
Canada`s head of state : HM Queen Elizabeth II
When not there, Queen is represented by : HE the Goernor Gneral David Johnston Provincially, HM i represented by : HH the Lieutenant Governor, David Onley. Canada`s Head of Government : RH Prime Minister Stephen Harper Powers of the monarch in Canada :

Read the throne speech, Dissolve Parliament, Choose a Prime Minister and ask him to form a government, Sign bills into law, Givve special awards to Canadians, Act as internation ambassador for Canada, Head of the military. Senate Canada 

Be a sober second thought, a second house to review legislation. Appointed by the PMO Triple E Senate :
Elected : elect senators instea of appointing them. (more responsible and accountable) Equal : Same amount of senators from each province
Effective : Must be more accountable and responsible.
Conservative : Implement EEE, but one E at a time
Liberal : Don`t fix what isn`t broke!
NDP : Abolish the Senate

Municipal Government
Pro : Different areas of the city have different needs. Representation is more fair. Voting is more equal. Con : Best candidates are limited because of where s/he lives. Members in other words may not care aout an issue in another word. Scale of Liberty

Extreme Right : Emphasis on the individual
Anarchy : No government
Libertarianism : A small government is necessary to protect the citizens and their property. Extreme left : Emphasis on the Group Nanny State and Social Engineering. Authoritarianism : High involvement of the state in the personal and economic affaires of the people Nanny State : Where the goernment acts as an authority figure over its citizens, thinking it knows what`s best for each individual. Social Engineering : Where the government seeks to apply its values or political agerida on its citizens.

Branches of Government
Juridicial Branch : Interprets the law renders decisions, issues, punishments. Appointed not elected. Until 1921 statute of Westminister, our highest court was the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. 3/9 seats Quebec-Ontario Executive Branch : Administers the law. Big decision makers (HM the queen, PM , cabinet). Incudes public service. Legislativ Branch : Has the power to make and change laws....
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