Final Biology Exam Review

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Final Biology Exam Review

Unit One: Cellular Processes

Definitions:
Apoptosis – Known as cell suicide, lysosomes break open and decompose the entire cell. Triglyceride – A lipid molecule composed of glycerol and three fatty acids. Simple diffusion – Movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. It goes through the phospholipid bilayer. Facilitated diffusion – Diffusion of particles through the cell membrane, assisted by transmembrane proteins. Carrier protein – Transmembrane protein that helps with diffusion of certain substances through a membrane. Active transport - Movement of substances through a membrane against a concentration gradient, uses carrier proteins and energy from ATP. Enzyme – A protein that speeds up chemical reactions.

ATP (adenosine triphosphate) – Compound used as a source of energy in cells. Saturated fatty acid – Fatty acid that has no double bonds between carbon atoms. Unsaturated fatty acid – Fatty acid that has one or more double bonds between their carbon atoms.

Write the formula for determining total magnification when using a compound light microscope.
Total magnification = Ocular lens magnification x Objective lens magnification

Calculate the magnification for each:

Ocular lens = 15x Objective lens = 10x Total magnification =?? 150xOcular lens = 15x Objective lens =?? 15x Total magnification = 225x Describe the structure and function of each of the following organelles:
Cell membrane (plasma membrane) – Made of two phospholipid molecules (bilayer), proteins, and carbohydrates. Controls what enters and exits the cell. Ribosome – Round organelle that either floats freely in the cytoplasm or is attached to the rough E.R. Used by the cell to produce proteins. Lysosome – Round organelle containing digestive enzymes. Breaks down molecules, destroys old cell organelles and controls apoptosis. Nucleus – Round organelle that manages or controls all the cell functions in a eukaryotic cell. Mitochondria – Rod-shaped organelle that floats freely in the cell, provides energy for cell. Golgi apparatus – Flattened stack of tubes scattered throughout the cytoplasm. Collects, modifies, packages and distributes molecules. Cytoplasm – Made of cytosol, it is the entire region between the nucleus and cell membrane. Contains all cell organelles. RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum) – System of tubes and channels covered in ribosomes, helps produce new proteins. Transports molecules throughout the cell. SER (Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum) – System of tubes and channels involved in the production of fats and other enzyme activities. Transports molecules throughout the cell.

A) What is a functional group?

A cluster of atoms that gives compounds specific chemical properties.
B) Refer to handout.

A) List the functions of each macromolecule.

Carbohydrate – Used as a source of energy.
Lipid – Used as an energy-storage molecule in animals.
Protein – Makes up part of the cell membrane, provides support and shape to the cell.

Nucleic acid – Building block of living things, helps cell replicate and build proteins.
B) List the monomer (single unit) for each macromolecule.
Carbohydrate – Monosaccharide
Lipid – Triglyceride
Protein – Amino acids
Nucleic acid – Nucleolus

A) Which atoms make up a carbohydrate? In what proportion?

Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio.
B) Explain the difference between a monosaccharide, a disaccharide and a polysaccharide. List examples of each.
A monosaccharide us one sugar, a disaccharide is two sugar molecules combined together and a polysaccharide is multiple sugar molecules joined together in a chain. Examples of these would be glucose (monosaccharide), sucrose (disaccharide), and glycogen (polysaccharide).

Write the central structure of an amino acid. Label the...
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