Elements of Art
. Texture: The texture is the quality of a surface, often corresponding to its tactile character, or what may be sensed by touch. It can be explicitly rendered, or implied with other artistic elements such as lines, shading, and variation of color. It is also about the different patterns and types of lines and shading e.g.: rough, smooth, soft
. Form: Form may be created by the forming of two or more shapes or as three-dimensional shapes (cube, pyramid, sphere, cylinder, etc.). It may be enhanced by tone, texture and color. Form is considered three-dimensional showing height, width and depth
. Space: Space is the area provided for a particular purpose. Space includes the background, foreground and middle ground. Space refers to the distances or areas around, between or within things. There are two types of space: positive and negative space. Positive space refers to the space of a shape representing the subject matter. Negative space refers to the space around and between the subject matter
. Shape: Shape pertains to the use of areas in two dimensional spaces that can be defined by edges, setting one flat specific space apart from another. Shapes can be geometric (e.g.: square, circle, hexagon, etc
. Color: Color pertains to the use of hue in artwork and design. Defined as primary colors which can’t be mixed to from other hues, secondary colors (green, orange, violet) which are directly mixed from combinations of primary colors. Further combinations of primary and secondary colors create tertiary.
. Value: Value, or tone, refers to the use of light and dark, shade and highlight, in an artwork. Some people also refer the lightness and darkness in an artwork as tints(light) and shades(dark). Value is directly related to contrast. Value is the relative degree of lightness in the graphic work of art or painting.
. Line: Line is defined as a mark that spans a distance between two points (or the path of a moving point), taking any form along the way. As an art element, line pertains to the use of various marks, outlines and implied lines in artwork and design, most often used to define shape in two-dimensional work. Implied line is the path that the viewer's eyes takes as it follows shapes, colors, and form along a path, but may not be continuous or physically connected. A line is an identifiable path created by a point moving in space. It is one-dimensional and can vary in width, direction, and length. Lines often define the edges of a form. Lines can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, straight or curved, thick or thin. They lead your eye around the composition and can communicate information through their character and direction.
Principles of Design
Balance in design is similar to balance in physics
Gradation of size and direction produce linear perspective. Gradation of of color from warm to cool and tone from dark to light produce an aerial perspective. Gradation can add interest and movement to a shape. A gradation from dark to light will cause the eye to move along a shape.
Repetition with variation is interesting, without variation repetition can become monotonous.
Contrast is the just a position of opposing elements e.g. opposite colors on the color wheel Contrast in tone or value - light / dark. Contrast in direction - horizontal / vertical. The major contrast in a painting should be located at the center of interest. Unless a feeling of chaos and confusion are what you are seeking, it is a good idea to carefully consider where to place your areas of maximum contrast. Harmony
Harmony in painting is the visually satisfying effect of combining similar, related elements. Eg.adjacent colors on the color wheel, similar shapes etc. Dominance
Dominance gives a painting interest, counteracting confusion and monotony. Dominance can be applied to one or more of the elements to give emphasis