Film

Only available on StudyMode
  • Download(s) : 250
  • Published : January 5, 2013
Open Document
Text Preview
10/4/2012

Learning Objectives:
Japanese Cinema: Its Stakeholders
Lecturer: Yow Chong Lee Email: clyow@faca.unimas.my
• To illustrate the effects of the interplay (interference) of the state and the capitalist system on Japanese film industry. • To explain the causes and effects of such interferences: – The ways films are produced, distributed and exhibited – Type of films allowed, – Regulation and censorship,

The Arrival of Sound Cinema in Japan
• Sound cinema arrived comparatively late in Japan. WHY? • 1st sound film: Heinosuke Gosho’s My Neighbour’s Wife & Mine (1931). The Only Son (1936)

The WWII and Its Effects on Japanese Cinema
• Japanese government hooped on expansionist project in the 1930s – 40s. • The film industry was unavoidably put under surveillance by the government & the military. • A law was enacted to harness films as propaganda tool.

• Even Ozu resisted using sound until 1936.

The Do and Don’t: During WWII
Restriction on Film Industry

The Two Most Popular Genres (since 1920s)
Why NO Jidai-geki films?

Japanese Genres

Do

Don’t

Jidai-geki

Gendai-geki
Films about contemporary life

Patriotic Films & Safe genres

Jidai-geki Film (esp. Chambara films)

Period Films

Ex: Chambara films

Ex: Shomingeki

1

10/4/2012

Major Japanese Film Companies & Their Focus
Film Companies
Shochik u

Japanese Cinema: Tradition of Boom & Bust

Boom
Toho ShinToho
Military subjects laden with ultra conservative overtune s

Bust
WHY?
Many film companies (studios) closed/ went bankrupt (in 60s)

Nikkatsu

Daiei

Toei

In 1950s - Golden Age of Business Prosperity

Taiyozoku (suntribe)

Art-films (Rashomo n& Ugetsu) & seiten (sex series) for teenagers

Make melodra ma (shomingeki) to aim at female audience

Adapt Jidai-geki to suit children & teenagers

Comedy series to target whitecollar market

Theatres tripled to the prewar no. (to ≈ 7400 cinemas)

Theatres were reduced to 2000 (in 80s)

Peak production ≈ 550 films/year

No. of films shrunk to ≈ 300 (in 80s)

The Challenges for the Film Industry (Production)
Advent of new technology (TV, Video Cassette, DVD, internet)

Challenges

CHALLENGES AND THE WAY FORWARD
Changing of Direction

Strikes

Poor Management

After the Bust: Changing of Direction (Production)
• Work independently w/o assistance of studio • Raise fund via Art Theatre Guild (ATG) • Outmoded theme • Expensive (set, costume, props) • Rapid changes of rural landscape

Changing of Direction: New Kind of Diversification
Tourist spots

Artistic Bent Director s

Jidaigeki OUT!
Different Genre

“Taisaku -Shugi” • Betting on blockbuster (risky) • Ex: Reproduce chambara films (after 18 years)

Building shopping on the site of studios
• Yakuza (by Toei) • Sci-fi (by Toho) • Tora-san series (by Shochiku)

Turning studios into tourist spots (Toei)

Shopping malls Other kind of enterta inment

Turning theatres into live stage revues

2

10/4/2012

Changing of Direction: The Involvement of Independent Production Companies Films Production in Japan (1980s) Studios
40% 60%

Independent Production Companies
• Usually linked to “small capital”. • But, recent trend shows that, they are mostly huge enterprises involving in: – TV broadcast (Fuji TV), – Publishing (Kadokawa Publishing Company), – Department stores, hotels, and even railways (Tokyu Group & Seibu Saison Group)

Independent Production Companies

Ex: Seibu Saison Group & Its Film Business
• Build cinemas, ex: Cine Vivant & Cine Saison
Exhibition

Changing of Direction: Working with Studios (Production)
• Most big consortium of investors will corporate with studios.

Reasons
• Distribute Foreign Films

Distribution

• Sensitive toward market • Capturing teenagers since young adults are deserting Production theatres – Sci-fi films

Studios have readily established distribution& Exhibition network

No anti-cartel law in...
tracking img