Filipino: Reviewer in Fundamentals of Nursing

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FUNDAMENTALS OF NURSING

Man
➢ Forms the foundation of Nursing

Four Components or Attributes of Man
➢ Capacity to think on an Abstract Level
➢ Establish a family
➢ Establish a territory
➢ Ability to use verbal symbols as language

Concept:
➢ Animals form a family by instinct
➢ Via hormonal scents

Nursing Concepts of Man

Biopsychosocial Spiritual Being

➢ By Sister Calista Roy
➢ Man interacts with the environment

Open System

➢ By Martha Rogers
➢ Man interacts with the environment
➢ Exchanges matter with energy
➢ Exchanges energy with environment

Unified Whole

➢ By Martha Rogers
➢ Man is composed of certain parts
➢ Total of those parts is more than the sum of all parts ➢ This is because man has attributes

Vital Reparative Process

➢ By Florence Nightingale
➢ Man is passive in influencing the nurse or the environment

Man is a whole. Man is complete

➢ By Virginia Henderson
➢ Man has fourteen (14) fundamental needs

Human Needs

➢ Needs are physiologic and psychologic
➢ Both these needs must be met in order to maintain well-being.

Key Concept:
➢ Basic Human Needs are equivalent to COMMON NEEDS

Characteristics of Human Needs

➢ Universal
➢ Interrelated
➢ One need is related to another need
➢ May be stimulated by internal or external factors
➢ May be deferred (but not indefinitely)

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Why do we study this?

➢ In order to prioritize nursing actions

1. Physiologic needs
➢ Food, maintenance of homeostasis
2. Safety and security
3. Love and belongingness
4. Self-Esteem
➢ Feeling good about one’s self
➢ Two factors affecting Self-esteem
o Yourself
▪ Sense of adequacy
▪ Accomplishment
o Others
▪ Appreciation
▪ Recognition
▪ Admiration
▪ Belongingness
5. Self-Actualization
➢ Able to fulfill needs and ambitions
➢ Maximizing one’s full potential
6. Aesthetics
➢ Beauty

Two Additional Needs by Maslow

➢ Need to know
➢ Need to understand

Richard Kalish

➢ Man needs stimulation
➢ Needs to explore
o Sex
o Activity
o Novelty
▪ Stimulator
▪ Desire to come up with something of your own

Characteristics of Self-Actualized Persons
➢ Judges people correctly
➢ Superior perception
➢ Decisive
o Capable of making decisions
➢ Clear notion as to what is right and wrong
➢ Open to new ideas
o Not adopts new ideas
o Not one track mind
➢ Highly creative and flexible
➢ Does not need fame
➢ Problem-centered rather than self-centered

Concept:
➢ Self-Actualization is very difficult to attain
➢ It is impossible to attain
➢ New needs come after getting one need

Illness

➢ Highly subjective feeling of being sick or ill

Two types of Illness:

Acute Illness

➢ Sudden in onset (most of the time, but not always)
➢ Less than six (6) months

Chronic Illness

➢ Gradual in onset (most of the time, but not always)
➢ Types of Chronic Illness
o Exacerbation
▪ Period characterized by active signs and symptoms of the illness o Remission
▪ Periods where no signs and symptoms are present

Disease

➢ Objective pathologic process

Concepts:
➢ Illness without disease is possible
➢ Disease without illness is possible
➢ Illness may or may not be related to a disease
➢ One can have a disease without necessarily feeling ill

Deviance

➢ Any behavior that goes against social norms
➢ Shortens life span
➢ Results to disrupted family and community

Concept:...
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