• People have amazing ability to recognize and remember thousands of faces. • Face is an important part of who you are and how people identify you. • While humans have had the innate ability to recognize and distinguish faces for millions of years, computers are just catching up. • Face recognition is a fascinating problem with important commercial applications such as mug shot matching, crowd surveillance & witness face reconstruction. • In computer vision most of the popular face recognition algorithms have been biologically motivated. • Using these models researchers can quantify the similarity between faces, images whose projections are close in face space are likely to be from the same individual. • Compare results of these models with human perception to determine whether distance in face space corresponds to the human notion of facial similarity. • Biometrics is used for that purpose.
FACE RECOGINITION SYSTEM
Human face recognition has drawn considerable attention from the researchers in recent years. An automatic face recognition system will find many applications in areas such as human-computer interfaces, model-based video coding and security control systems. In addition, face recognition has the potential of being a non-intrusive form of biometric identification. The difficulties of face recognition lie in the inherent variability arising from face characteristics (age, gender and race), geometry (distance and viewpoint), image quality (resolution, illumination, signal to noise ratio), and image content (background, occlusion and disguise). Because of such complexity, most face recognition systems to date assume a well-controlled environment and recognize only near frontal faces. However, these constraints need to be relaxed in practice What is biometric?
A biometric is a unique, measurable characteristic of a human being that can be used to automatically recognize an individual or verify an individual identity. Biometrics can measure both physiological and behavioral characteristics.
Definition of Biometrics
“Any automatically measurable, robust and distinctive physical characteristic or personal trait that can be used to identify an individual or verify the claimed identity of an individual” This definition requires elaboration:-
Measurable means that the characteristic or trait can be easily presented to a sensor, located by it, and converted into a quantifiable, digital format. This measurability allows for matching to occur in a matter of seconds and makes it an automated process. Iris Scan
Iris scanning measures the iris pattern in the colored part of the eye, although the iris color has nothing to do with the biometric. Iris patterns are formed randomly. As a result, the iris patterns in a person’s left and right eyes are different, and so are the iris patterns of identical twins. Iris scanning can be used quickly for both identification and verification applications because the iris is highly distinctive and robust. Retinal Scan
Retinal scans measure the blood vessel patterns in the back of the eye. The device involves a light source shined into the eye of a user who must be standing very still within inches of the device. Because users perceive the technology to be somewhat intrusive, retinal scanning has not gained popularity; currently retinal scanning devices are not commercially available. Facial Recognition
Facial recognition records the spatial geometry of distinguishing features of the face. Different vendors use different methods of facial recognition, however, all focus on measures of key features of the face. Because a person’s face can be captured by a camera from some distance away, facial recognition has a clandestine or covert capability (i.e. the subject does not necessarily know he has been observed). For this reason, facial recognition has been used in projects to identify card counters or other undesirables in casinos, shoplifters in...
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