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Beyond the Myths and Paradoxes of Sport Fourth Edition
D. Stanley Eitzen
ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC. Lanham • Boulder • New York • Toronto • Plymouth, UK
ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD PUBLISHERS, INC. Published in the United States of America by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. A wholly owned subsidiary of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.rowmanlittlefield.com Estover Road Plymouth PL6 7PY United Kingdom Copyright © 2009 Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Eitzen, D. Stanley. Fair and foul : beyond the myths and paradoxes of sport / D. Stanley Eitzen. — 4th ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-7425-6177-9 (cloth : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-7425-6178-6 (pbk. : alk. paper) — ISBN 978-0-7425-6470-1 (electronic) 1. Sports—Sociological aspects. 2. Sports—Psychological aspects. 3. Sports— Social aspects—United States. I. Title. II. Title: Beyond the myths and paradoxes of sport. GV706.5.E567 2009 796—dc22 2008047982 Printed in the United States of America
™ The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences—Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992.
Acknowledgments 1 2 3 The Duality of Sport Sport Unites, Sport Divides Names, Logos, Mascots, and Flags: The Contradictory Uses of Sports Symbols Sport Is Fair, Sport Is Foul Sport Is Healthy, Sport Is Destructive The Organization of Children’s Play: Peer Centered or Adult Centered? Sport Is Expressive, Sport Is Controlled Myth: Sports Are Played on a Level Playing Field The Contradictions of Big-Time College Sports The Path to Success? Myth and Reality
vii 1 19
41 59 83
4 5 6
101 125 145 165 205
7 8 9 10
Professional Sports Franchises: Public Teams, Private Businesses The Globalization of Sport
221 243 261 273 291
13 The Challenge: Changing Sport Index About the Author
My sociological approach to sport and other social arenas results in large measure from the contributions of a number of friends, colleagues, and collaborators over a career. They have questioned me, cajoled me, challenged me, helped me, taught me, enlightened me, and inspired me. They are (in alphabetical order) Maxine Baca Zinn, Pete Birkhofer, Jay Coakley, Jo Anne Drahota, William Flint, James Frey, Janis Johnston, Kenneth C. W. Kammeyer, Marston McCluggage, Michael Messner, Stephen Pratt, Dean Purdy, Julie Rauli, George Ritzer, George Sage, John Schneider, Kelly Eitzen Smith, Eldon Snyder, Elmer Spreitzer, Kathryn Talley, Doug Timmer, Prabha Unnithan, and Norman Yetman. Especially important to this project were the reviewers of the first edition, Mike Littwin, sportswriter for the Denver Rocky Mountain News, and sports scholars/sociologists/friends Michael Messner and George Sage. Thanks also to the anonymous reviewers of the second and third editions.
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1 THE DUALITY OF SPORT
Human beings seek ekstasis, a “stepping outside” of their normal, mundane experience. If they no longer find ecstasy in a synagogue, church, or mosque, they look for it in dance, music, sport, sex or drugs. —Karen Armstrong, historian of religions Sport is a window on a changing society. —David Halberstam, author For some people, baseball is like a religion. It has all the elements: a creation story, falls from grace, redemption,...