Fad2230 Exam 1 Study Guide

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Chapter 1: Why Study Families & Other Close Relationships
Family: a relationship by blood, marriage, or affection, in which members may cooperate economically, may care for children, & may consider their identity to be intimately connected to the larger group. The U.S. Census Bureau

Two or more people living together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Family of Orientation: the family that you are born into.
Family of procreation: the Family you make through marriage, partnering, &/or parenthood. Fictive kin: Nonrelatives whose bonds are strong & intimate. Marriage: an institutional agreement between persons to publicly recognize social & intimate bonds. William Stevens

Socially legitimate sexual union
Begun with a public announcement
Undertaken with some idea of permanence
Assumed with a more or less explicit marriage contract that, spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses & their children. Functions across all cultures
Regulation of Sexual Behavior
Incest taboo
Reproducing & Socializing Children
Socialization: the process by which people learn the rules, expectations, & culture of the society. Property & inheritance
Monogamy
Economic cooperation
Social Placement, Status, & Roles
Care, Warmth, Protection, & Intimacy
Social Structure: stable framework of social relationships that guides our interactions with others. Micro-level: Focus on the individual & his or her interactions in specific settings. Personal choices

Behaviors
Feelings
Communication
Decisions
Constraints
Values
Macro-level: focus on the interconnectedness of marriage, families, & intimate relationships with the rest of society. Social institution: major sphere of social life, with a set of beliefs & rules that is organized to meet basic human needs. Economy

Political system
Dominant religion
Culture
History
Power/inequality
Social status
Status: the social position that a person occupies.
Sex
Race
Ethnicity
Social class
Social movements & social change
Master status: the major defining status or statuses that a person occupies. Human agency: the ability of human beings to create viable lives when they are constrained or limited by social forces. Marriage Patterns

Monogamy: marriage between one man & one woman
Polygamy: a system that allows for more than one spouse at a time. Gender unspecified
Polygyny: the marriage pattern in which husbands can have more than one wife. Most common
Legal in some regions
Polyandry: the marriage pattern in which wives are allowed to have more than one husband. Rare
Harsh environmental conditions
Patterns of Authority
Patriarchy: a form of social organization in which the norm or expectation is that men have the natural right to be in positions of authority over women. Matriarchy: a form of social organization in which the norm or expectation is that the power & authority in society should be vested in women. Egalitarian: the expectation that power & authority are vested in both men & women, equally. Patterns of Descent

Bilateral: descent that can be traced through both male & female sides of the family. Patrilineal: a descent pattern where lineage is traced exclusively/primarily through the man’s family line. Matrilineal: a descent pattern where lineage is traced exclusively/primarily within women’s families. Residence Patterns

Neolocal: the expectation that a newly married couple establishes a residence & lives there independently. Most common in the U.S.
Patrilocal: the expectation that a newly married couple will live with the husbands family. Matrilocal: the expectation that a newly married couple will live with the family of the wife. History of family life in the U.S. (Family trends)

Family life in Colonial America: European Colonists
Cornerstone of society: Family & Marriage
Businesses
Central focus of economic production
Self-sufficient households
Schools
Formal schooling rare
Parental education
Churches
Family prayed together
Located...
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