Quanti and Quali Evaluation don’t always match.
Quantitative: Good for the Overview. Explanation (Hypotheses). Closed Q . Suitable for generalization. Qualitative Research: Detail Research. Exploration, Generation. Open Q. Understanding/Motivation * Small Samples
* Understanding people and their context
* Close contact with participant
* Detailed and rick data
Empiricism (Social Science): knowledge comes from our experiences and is derived through our senses. Looks for understanding of subjectively meaningful experiences. Quali Research Positivism (Natural Science): Social world can be studied in terms of invariant (unveraenderlich) laws. Looks for law-like propositions. Quanti Research * Likes Natural Sciences for social studies
* Only observable phenomena can be accounted as knowledge * K is developed inductively through the accumulation of verified facts * Hypotheses are derived deductively from scientific theories to be tested empirically Interpretivism: K about world can be acquired in other ways than direct observation. INTERPRETATIONS. * Distinction between: Scientific reason casual determination & Practical reason moral freedom
Positivism has been on top but then it has been questioned, if it was possible to .. 1. control variables,
2. To eliminate contextual variables
3. Study social world in artificial environment?
4. Differently? Hypotheses right method ..?
* Quali Research
Ontology: Science that tries to categorize everything
1 Realism: distinction b/w the way the world is and the meaning and interpretation of that world held by individuals 2. Materialism: Real world exists, but only material features in the world hold reality. values, beliefs or experiences do not shape the material world. 3. idealism: reality is only knowable thorough the human mind and through socially constructed meanings.
Epistemology: ways of knowing and learning about the world
1. Relship b/w the researcher and the participants.
Natural Science: independent and unaffected
Social Science: Interactive
Empathic Neutrality: Research cannot be value free but researchers should make their assumptions transparent. 2. Issues around truth:
NS: match b/w observations of natural world and an independent reality SS: multiple reports confirm same thesis, than true
Pragmatic view: true, if it serves the purpose
3. The way K is acquired:
Inductive View: Looking for patterns and associations derived from observations of the world Deductive View: Propositions or Hypotheses are reached theoretically through logically derived processes. 2)
Theoretical R: aim of testing, generating or enhancing thinking within a particular discipline Applied R: using K acquired through R directly to the understanding or resolution of a contemporary issue. Functions of QR:
1. Contextual (Describing)
e.g. map the range, dimensions
e.g. display the nature or features of a phenomenon
e.g. describe the meaning that people attach to sth
e.g. identify and define typologies
2. Explanatory ( Examining the reasons)
e.g. factors that underlie
motivations that lead to ..
the context in which phenomenon occur.
3. Evaluative ( appraising (schaetzen) the effectiveness ) e.g. idenftify factors that contribute to a successful
effects of taking part ..
examine the requirements of different groups within a target population explore a range of organizational aspects
explore the contexts
Patton’s list for evaluative functions in QR:
* Goal free, looking at actual events
* Connoisseurship (Kennerschaft)
* Utilization (Nutzbarkeit)-focused
Formative evaluation: designed to provide info to change or improve a program/ policy Summative evaluation: impact of an intervention
4. Generative (development of theories STH NEW,…)
e.g. develop theories or develop solutions., hypotheses, strategies...