Emotion and Motivation
1. What were the key components of Dr. Gewirtz’s definition of emotion? It’s different than “feelings”, “A state, elicited by a strongly motivational (i.e. “reinforcing”) event or by anticipation of such an event, that produces a coordinated set of adaptive responses. 2. Emotional responses have three aspects: “feelings,” autonomic responses, and somatic responses. What does each of these refer to?
Feelings: Introspection, subjective
Autonomic Responses: Sympathetic activation, hormonal
Somatic Responses: Facial expressions, approach or avoidance 3. What is the evolutionary view of emotion as originally proposed by Darwin? What is the adaptive value of emotion? What evidence suggests that these emotions are innate? Emotion promotes survival of the species, emotional responses are instinctive and universal, rather than learned and culture-specific 4. What are Ekman’s six (or seven) basic emotions?
Happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, surprise, (contempt) 5. How can researchers study emotion? In humans? In rats? What is the fear-potentiated startle response? How is the fear-potentiated started acquired by rats? 6. What is the International Affective Picture System (IAPS)? How is research done with the IAPS? Emotion has two dimensions, valence (pleasant and unpleasant) and arousal. What kinds of images are associated with dimensions? What are the three primary motive systems, according to Dr. Gewirtz? What is meant by a motive system?
IAPS: 800+ pictures with normative ratings of valence (pleasant versus unpleasant) and arousal 7. What is a phobia? Compared to most people, what is the measure startle of individuals with phobia to pleasant, high arousal images? To neutral, low arousal images? To unpleasant, high arousal images? To the object of their phobia? 8. What is a psychopath? Compared to most people, what is the measured startle of psychopaths to pleasant, high arousal images? To neutral, low arousal images? To unpleasant, high arousal images? 9. What is the role of the amygdale in emotion? What behavioral symptoms of anxiety are associated with the amygdale? What happens to fear when the amygdale is lesioned?
Amygdale=Fear and aggression. When the amygdale is lesioned, people feel less fear 10. What is exposure therapy? How can exposure therapy be used for the treatment of PTSD or fear or flying? What does extinction of a fear response involve—is the memory erased or a new response learned? How does DCS (C-clycloserine) be used to speed up extinction? Why? Exposure therapy is the most effective behavioral treatment for anxiety, can be done using virtual reality technology. Causes patient to inhibit their state of fear 11. What is a flashbulb memory? How can beta-blockers be used to treat PTSD? Flashbulb Memory: Storage and/or retrieval of memories is enhanced by a high state of arousal at the time of encoding Beta blockers block norepinephrine, causing the memories to have less of an emotional impact. 12. What are rewards? What are typical rewards for humans? What is the nucleus accumbens? Why is it associated with the reward pathway? Rewards are stimuli that motivate behavior -> behaviors that are rewarded are more likely to be repeated. Rewarding stimuli cause the release of dopamine from cells in the ventral tegmental area of the brain 13. What is drug addiction and how does addiction happen? What are three mechanisms of addiction described in lecture? Drug addiction: Habitual drug use, despite adverse effects on health and social life and, generally, despite efforts to quit, happens by drugs “hijacking” the brain’s reward system Mechanisms: 1) Drug activates reward system and produces a “high”
2) Craving: Drug produces urge to consume more
3) Withdrawal: Cessation of drug use causes anxiety and depression 14. What is the two-factor theory of Emotion? What were the findings of the Dutton & Aron bridge study? How were these findings consistent...