Mgmt Study Guide Exam 3
* Acquired needs theory: motivation theory that focuses on learned needs-such as those for achievement, power and affiliation- that becomes enduring tendencies * Content theory: a motivation theory that focuses on what needs a person is trying to satisfy and on what features of the work environment seem to satisfy those needs * Equity theory: a motivation theory proposing that individuals will compare their circumstances t those of others and that such comparisons may motivate certain kinds of behavior * Expectancy theory: a motivation theory that focuses on the thought processes people use when choosing among alternative courses of action with their anticipated consequences * Extinction: the absence of positive consequences for behavior, lessening the likelihood of that behavior in the future * Goal-setting theory: a belief proposing that human action is directed by conscious goals and intentions * In-group: the group to which an individuals belongs
* Job characteristics model: an approach that focuses on the motivational attributes of jobs by emphasizing three sets of variables: core job characteristics, critical psychological states and outcomes * Job enrichment: increasing the complexity of a jb to provide a greater sense of responsibility, accomplishment and achievement * Maslow’s need hierarchy theory: a set of beliefs proposing that people will first attempt to fulfill basic needs, such as physiological and safety needs, before making efforts to satisfy higher-order needs, such as social and esteem needs * Motivation: a set of forces that energize, direct and sustain behavior * Negative reinforcement: an undesirable consequences that, by being removed or avoided following a behavior, increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future * Positive reinforcement: a desirable consequence that, by occurring or being supplied following a behavior, in creases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future * Process theory: a motivation theory dealing with the way different variable combine to influence the amount of effort people put forth * Punishment: an undesirable consequence given following a behavior to decrease the likelihood that behavior will be repeated * Self-efficacy: an individuals confidence about his or her abilities to mobilize motivation, cognitive resources, and courses of action needed to successfully execute a specific task within a given context * Social cognitive theory: a process theory that, in part, describes how to increase an individual’s sense of self efficacy, thus increasing motivation * Two-factor theory: a motivation theory that focuses on the presumed different effects of intrinsic job factors (motivation) and extrinsic situational factors (hygiene factors) * Work centrality: the degree of general importance that working has in the life of an individual point in time
* Cohesion: the degree to which members are motivated to remain in the group * Command group: (supervisory group): a group whose members consist of a supervisor or manager and all those who report to that person * Committee: a group that is either permanent or temporary (ad hoc) whose members meet only occasionally and otherwise report to different permanent supervisors in an organization structure * Conformity: close adherence to the groups norms by the individual members * Formal group: a group that is designated, created, and sanctioned by the organization to carry out its basic work and fulfill its overall mission * Group: a set of people, limited in number (usually from 3 to 20) who have some degree of mutual interaction and shared objectives * Informal group: a group whose members interact voluntarily * Intergroup conflict: differences that occur between groups * Intragroup conflict: differences that occur within groups * Norm: a...
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