Exam 2 Study Guide

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BI 111 Study Guide
Exam #1: Some of Ch. 4, the brief discussion summarizing Ch. 6, and Chptrs. 5, 7, and 8

HOW TO USE THIS STUDY GUIDE: You should be able to provide fairly detailed answers to the following questions and directions… this means you will probably use more room than is provided by the small spaces between them. Some of those answers will include things I talked about in lecture, as well as concepts that are explained by your textbook. You may want to reformat the guide on the computer before you print it, leaving yourself more room to write or type, or transcribe the questions to other sheets of paper.

Chapter Four: The Working Units of Life

1. Describe the characteristics and functions of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. Answer the “big picture” questions: Why do we breathe? How do plants get larger (gain dry mass, more specifically)?

2. Describe the functions of the cytoskeleton. Specifically, describe microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments.

3. Discuss cell wall composition among various organisms.

4. Describe the functions of the extracellular matrix of animal cells. What are collagen, fibronectin, and integrins, and how do they interact?

5. What are plasmodesmata, tight junctions, gap junctions, and desmosomes, and where are they located?

Chapter Five: Cell Membranes and Signaling

1. Discuss the composition of the cell membrane, and how membrane molecules may differ among organisms, within an organism, and even within a cell.

2. What factors affect membrane fluidity, and how? Why is the cell membrane referred to as a “fluid matrix”?

3. Describe the properties of peripheral and integral membrane proteins and discuss membrane protein movement within the membrane.

4. What are recognition sites, and how do they work?

5. Membranes are selectively permeable… what can pass easily via simple diffusion, and why?

6. Define passive transport, and simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion. What types of proteins are involved in facilitated diffusion? Give some examples of how they work. What determines diffusion rate?

7. Understand the process of osmosis, and the concept of tonicity.

8. Describe active transport. Recognize an example of secondary active transport, and how it differs from primary active transport. Discuss the movement of large molecules across a membrane.

9. Discuss the principles of cell signaling. Differentiate between autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine signals.

10. Give an example of signals that might come from outside an organism.

11. What is a ligand? What happens when it binds to a receptor? What does this initiate? How might a receptor act as an enzyme?

12. How do SSRIs work?

13. Classify receptors by location and function.

CHAPTER 6: QUICK AND DIRTY LOOK AT ENERGY (see the short energy PPT we went over in lecture)

1. Briefly describe the two reactions of photosynthesis, including the overall reactants and products.

2. What is carbon fixation?

3. Briefly describe the three reactions of aerobic cellular respiration, including the overall reactants and products.

4. Understand that other organic molecules can be used to run (as reactants) the cellular respiration reactions, as well as glucose (slide 5). Also understand other organic molecules are built from the products of photosynthesis, as well as glucose.

5. Recognize the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration, and how it relates to the survival of life on earth.

6. Understand how energy flows through an ecosystem, and what energy conversions take place.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE CELL CYCLE AND CELL DIVISION

1. Define the terms as outlined in the PPT for Chapter Seven.

2. Does chromosome number relate to organism complexity in any way?

3. Describe the three stages within interphase, and what occurs during each.

4. Describe the...
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