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  • Topic: Migraine, Serotonin, Headaches
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  • Published : February 13, 2013
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Migraine
1. Overview 2. Classes and Types of Migraine Headaches 3. Physiological Mechanism of Migraine 4. Serotonin System and Migraines 5. Antimigraine therapy

1. Overview

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Migraine More than 29.5 million Americans suffer from migraine, with women being affected three times more often than men. This vascular headache is most commonly experienced between the ages of 15 and 55, and 70% to 80% of sufferers have a family history of migraine.

Migraine is often misdiagnosed as sinus headache or tension-type headache.

Migraine (Con’t)  Many factors can trigger migraine attacks: Alteration of sleep-wake cycle. Missing or delaying a meal. Medications that cause a swelling of the blood vessels. Daily or near daily use of medications designed for relieving headache attacks. Bright lights, sunlight, fluorescent lights, TV and movie viewing, certain foods; and excessive noise. Stress and/or underlying depression are important trigger factors that can be diagnosed and treated adequately.

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Migraine (Con’t) Patients with severe migraine headaches report one to five attacks per month of moderate to severe pain, ………………………. The headaches affect patients for a major part of their lives and result in considerable health costs.

Migraine (Con’t) Migraine can be distinguished from the two other common types of headaches cluster headache and tension-type headache by it characteristics: pulsatile and throbbing pain Migraine: ………………………………. Cluster headaches: excruciating, sharp and steady pain. Tension-type headache: dull pain, with a persistent, tightening feeling in the head.

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Migraine (Con’t) Moderate to severe pain, which may be confined to one side (…………………..…..…...) of the head or may affect both sides (…………………………….) Head pain with a …………………………………. Pain that worsens with physical activity

Pain that interferes with your regular activities
Nausea with or without vomiting Sensitivity to light and sound

2. Classes and Types of Migraine Headaches

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Two main types of migraine headaches

1) Migraine Headache exam-----> Migraine without aura …………..  …………………………………. Severe pulsating headaches One-sided ……………….

Nausea, vomiting

Aura: it often manifests as the perception of a strange light, an unpleasant smell or confusing thoughts or experiences.

1) Migraine Headache (Con’t) ------------> exam Hypersensitivity to light ………………………and hypersensitivity to sound ………………….. Worse with movement Lasts 2 to 72 hours

Approximately 70-85% of patients with migraine ……………………..

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2) Migraine Aura " classsic migraine" Previously called …………………….. Preceded by neurological symptoms called auras, which can be:

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Visual: flashing zigzag, missing area Sensory: pins and needles numbness Motor disturbance Lasts 5 to 60 min Affects 15-30% of patients suffering from migraine

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Subclasses of migraine common migraine Migraine without aura: …………...…………., involves migraine headaches that are not accompanied by an aura. Migraine with aura: involves migraine headaches accompanied by an aura. less commonly …………………….., an aura can occur without a headache. Childhood periodic syndromes: commonly precursors of migraine include: Cyclical vomiting: occasional intense periods of vomiting. Abdominal migraine: abdominal pain, usually accompanied by nausea. Benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood: occasional attacks of vertigo.

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Subclasses of migraine (Con’t) ---------------> Retinal migraine: migraine headaches accompanied by visual disturbances or even temporary blindness in one eye. Complications of migraine: migraine headaches and/or auras that are unusually long or unusually frequent, or associated with a seizure or brain lesion. Probable migraine: some characteristics of migraines but where there is not enough evidence to diagnose it as a migraine with certainty.

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3. Physiological Mechanism...
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