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CENTER on GLOBALIZATION, GOVERNANCE & COMPETITIVENESS

The Tourism Global Value Chain
ECONOMIC UPGRADING AND WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT

Michelle Christian Karina Fernandez-Stark Ghada Ahmed Gary Gereffi Contributing CGGC Researchers: Shelli Jo Heil

NOVEMBER

2011

The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

“Skills for Upgrading: Workforce Development and Global Value Chains in Developing Countries” This research project examines workforce development strategies in developing countries in the context of the shifting upgrading dynamics of global value chains. Funded by RTI International and carried out by Duke CGGC, this research addresses policymakers, donors and development practitioners to improve our understanding of how workforce development strategies can enhance the upgrading efforts and competitiveness of developing countries in global industries. Acknowledgements We would like to thank all of our co-authors, collaborating researchers, support staff and interviewees, who gave generously of their time and expertise. We would also like to thank Phil Psilos and Joe DeStefano of RTI International for comments on early drafts. None of the opinions or comments expressed in this study are endorsed by the companies mentioned or individuals interviewed. Errors of fact or interpretation remain exclusively with the authors. The authors can be contacted at: Michelle Christian Karina Fernandez-Stark Ghada Ahmed Gary Gereffi michelle.christian@duke.edu karina.stark@duke.edu ghada.ahmed@duke.edu ggere@soc.duke.edu

Duke University Center on Globalization, Governance and Competitiveness (Duke CGGC) The Duke University Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (CGGC) is a center affiliated with the Social Science Research Institute at Duke University. Duke CGGC is a center of excellence in the United States that uses a global value chains methodology to study the effects of globalization in terms of economic, social and environmental upgrading, international competitiveness and innovation in the knowledge economy. Duke CGGC works with a network of researchers and scholars around the world in order to link the global with the local and to understand the effects of globalization on countries, companies and the full range of development stakeholders. © November, 2011 Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness, Duke University Posted: November 17, 2011

The Tourism Global Value Chain: Economic Upgrading and Workforce Development

Table of Contents
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................................ 1  I.  Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 6  II.  Global Organization of the Industry .................................................................................................. 7  III.  The Tourism Global Value Chain ..................................................................................................... 10  IV.  Economic Upgrading in the Tourism Global Value Chain ............................................................12  V.  Workforce Development in the Tourism Global Value Chain ....................................................... 16  VI.  Developing Country Case Studies ..................................................................................................... 22  A.  Costa Rica ................................................................................................................................23  B.  Jordan ....................................................................................................................................... 30  C.  Vietnam ................................................................................................................................... 36  VII. ...
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