Evaluation Theory and Models
System analysis approach
- quantitative output measures, usually test scores
- tries to relate differences in programs to variations in test scores - survey and experimental methodology
Behavioral objectives model
objectives of a program are spelled out in terms of specific student performances or behaviors _
uses test scores to measure the behaviors, using norm references or criterion references as standards
The decision-making model
stru¬ctured by the decisions to be made
Evaluators supply the information to administrators and for making particular decisions -
questionnaire and interview surveys
Goal-free evaluation model
concerned with reducing the effects of bias in evaluation by searching all outcomes -
The primary audience for this model is the con¬summer
Art criticism model or educational critic
uses the traditions of art and literary criticism.
uses expert "who is attuned by experience and training to judge the important facets of educational programs" -
to help us to judge the programs through the process of description, interpretation, and appraisal
Accreditation evaluation model
employs out¬side professionals to judge programs using a set of external standards -
a coop¬erative effort
Adversary evaluation model
uses quasi-legal procedures by presenting pros and cons of a program -
usually takes the form of trial-by-jury to determine the worth of a program.
emphasis on the process rather than on the outcome of a program -
focuses on events occurring in and around the actual program in context -
based on percep¬tion and knowing as a transactional process -
typical question one might ask about this model is what the program looks like to different people -
frequently, the model uses case study, interview, and observation methodolo¬gies.
Guba and Lincoln (1989).
four generations characterized by different methodologies: (a)...
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