System analysis approach
- quantitative output measures, usually test scores
- tries to relate differences in programs to variations in test scores - survey and experimental methodology
Behavioral objectives model
-objectives of a program are spelled out in terms of specific student performances or behaviors _uses test scores to measure the behaviors, using norm references or criterion references as standards
The decision-making model
-stru¬ctured by the decisions to be made
-Evaluators supply the information to administrators and for making particular decisions -questionnaire and interview surveys
Goal-free evaluation model
-concerned with reducing the effects of bias in evaluation by searching all outcomes -The primary audience for this model is the con¬summer
Art criticism model or educational critic
-uses the traditions of art and literary criticism.
-uses expert "who is attuned by experience and training to judge the important facets of educational programs" -to help us to judge the programs through the process of description, interpretation, and appraisal
Accreditation evaluation model
-employs out¬side professionals to judge programs using a set of external standards -a coop¬erative effort
Adversary evaluation model
-uses quasi-legal procedures by presenting pros and cons of a program -usually takes the form of trial-by-jury to determine the worth of a program.
-emphasis on the process rather than on the outcome of a program -focuses on events occurring in and around the actual program in context -based on percep¬tion and knowing as a transactional process -typical question one might ask about this model is what the program looks like to different people -frequently, the model uses case study, interview, and observation methodolo¬gies.
Guba and Lincoln (1989).
-four generations characterized by different methodologies: (a)...