European History Notes

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AP European History|
Chapter 15: State Building and the Search for Order in the Seventeenth Century
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The seventeenth century saw many forward developments in politics, economics, and culture through the new idea of absolutism and its impact, the “last religious war,” and new cultural attainments based on the new politics engulfing the land.

The first half of the seventeenth century introduced the new but time-honored spread and prosecution of witchcraft, and “the last of the religious wars,” which paved the way to modern politics as we know them today.

* Inflation-fueled prosperity of the sixteenth century began to slacken. * Italy and Spain’s economies were declining.

Witchcraft began to be a major enemy of the general population, and witches, mostly women, were prosecuted so.

* Not a new phenomenon.
* “Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live,”

* Increased number of trials and executions.
* Accused witches usually confessed to a number of practices. * Religious uncertainties
* “looking out for oneself”
* Women would have succumbed more easily to the devil.
* Mid-seventeenth century = decline

A war to end all religious wars, the Thirty Years’ War was conducted in four phases (Bohemian, Danish, Swedish, and Franco-Swedish), and began with Bohemians deposing Ferdinand and ending with The Peace of Westphalia.

* Religious played an important part in the outbreak of the war. * Became clear that secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were important. * Fighting took place in H.R.E.
Chapter Thesis

Social Crises, War, and Rebellions.

The Witchcraft Craze

The Spread of Witchcraft

The Thirty Years’ War

Background to the War

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* Part of a larger conflict for European leadership between the Bourbon dynasty of France and the Habsburg dynasties of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. * Number of German states had adopted Calvinism as their state church. * German princes fought for “German liberties.”

* 1618 – 1625
* Bohemian Estates accepted Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand as king, soon disliked him. * Protestant nobles threw two Habsburg governors and a secretary out of the window. * Bohemian rebels deposed Ferdinand and elected Protestant Elector Frederick V as leader, also head of the Protestant Union. * Ferdinand, who became HR Emperor, defeated Frederick with Maximilian of Bavaria and the Catholic League at the Battle of White Mountain. * Spanish then invaded the Palatinate and conquered it by 1622. * Ferdinand established Catholicism as the sole religion of Bohemia. * Spanish attacked Dutch.

* 1625-1629

* King Christian IV (Denmark), Lutheran, led an army into northern Germany. * Made anti-Habsburg and anti-Catholic alliance with United Provinces and England. * Also wanted some Catholic territory in northern Germany. * Albrecht von Wallenstein = new commander for Ferdinand

* Christian IV defeated in 1626 by Count Tilly
* Ferdinand II issued the Edict of Restitution, which prohibited Calvinist worship and restored all property to the Church. * German Princes didn’t like this, dismissed Wallenstein.

The Bohemian Phase

The Danish Phase

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* 1630-1635
* Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, entered the war.
* Wanted to aid fellow protestants.
* Swedish won over Wallenstein at Battle of Lutzen, Adolphus was killed. * Wallenstein assassinated in 1634 on orders of Ferdinand. * Imperial army defeated Swedish at the Battle of Nordlingen at the...
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