Europe Notes

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Europe
I. General Info
A. Facts
1. birthplace of western civilization
2. influential on world development
a. history - exploration
b. philosophy - religion
[ religious backgrounds in US & Latin America come from Rome ]
c. ideology - gov
[ democracy comes from Ancient Greece ]
3. continent - subregions
a. Eastern (Central)
b. Western
B. Geography
1. major cities~refer to map
2. 2nd smallest Australia, 2.9) -4 sq. miles
3. population of 700 million +, density 65 ppl/sq. mile
4. 40+ nations
a. largest - Russia ~ 6.6m sq. m
b. smallest - Vatican City ~ 109 acres
5. highest point - Mt. Elbrus ~ 18,481 ft
6. lowest point - Caspian Depression ~ 92 ft
7. physical features - located on map
a. Mt. ranges
b. rivers
c. major islands
C. Land Regions
1. Northwest Mountains
a. some of the oldest rock formations on earth
2. The Great European Planins
a. very fertile land
3. Central Uplands [ Part of Germany + Poland ]
a. rich mineral resources
4. The Alpine Mountain System
a. heavy forest cover the upper slopes
[ global warming has caused snow to melt ]
2. Cultural
A. Urban/Rural
1. Urbanization ~ "Americanization"
a. modern sky scrapers
b. fast food chains, supermarkets
c. malls
d. old vs. new city
1) farmer's market
2) fortress/castles & cathedrals
3) walled city
4) new ethnics
[ Muslims from Africa have caused some trouble in EU. ]
2. country ~ "traditional way of life"
3. religious divisions
a. Northern ~ Protestant
b. Southern ~ Roman Catholic
c. Eastern ~ Orthodox
B. Social classes
1. have vs. have nots
2. not until the late 19th century, women & peasants voted
3. Class structure
a. worker
b. peasant ~ "poor farmer"
c. landowners
d. industrialists
4. Middle class emerged through professional jobs
5. Class by rank & privilege = obedience & respect
a. royalty
b. nobility
c. church officials 1) clergy 2) Hierarchy
d. everyone else
6. Social mobility
a. marriage
b. education
c. achievement
d. financial success
7. Family
a. most important in society
1) responsible for the individual
[ seen more prominent in Germany, Italy, Poland - particularly southern EU ] 3. Government & Education
A. Government's role
1. major part in running economies & providing for the basic welfare of the ppl
2. much greater role in national affairs
3. gov. owns & operates infrastructure
a. airlines
b. railroads
c. communication
4. major social welfare programs
a Otto von Bismark - created 1st social security program in the mid-18th century
b. many social entitlements
[ social security was adopted by US during Great Depression ]
1) free medical care
2) Norway
a) paid month vacation
b) free college education
3) Sweden
a) allowance children political & economic unity
b. ECU > European Currency Unit
[ PIIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, & Spain - weaker economy) weaken euro currencies BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries MIST (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey) - newly rising economic powers ]

c. The Treaty:
1) policies - social issues & infrastructure
2) money - common currency
3) politics - single foreign policy
4) defense - common policy
5) European Parliament
6) Immigration - freer movement
7) citizenship - "citizen of the union"
B. Education
1. vastly literate - +90%
2. oldest & most respected universities
3. some of the world's leading libraries
[ Oxford library has every single book published by an English author ]

II. History of Europe
1. Early
A. Prehistoric
1. early human - over 1 million yrs ago
*2. 6000 BC farming developed [ major step for civilization ]
a. final steps to civilization
b. settlement avoided the search for food
3. entire continent involved in farming, except the northern densely forested region B....
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