Ethical, Legal, and Economic Foundations of the Educational Process

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Chapter 2
Ethical, Legal, and Economic Foundations of the Educational Process

Differentiated View of Ethics, Morality and Law
1. Natural law (basis)
2. Deontological (Golden Rule)
3. Teleological (greatest good for the greatest number)

Evolution of Ethical/Legal Principles in Health Care
* Charitable Immunity
* Cardozo Decision of 1914
A. Informed consent
B. Right to self-determination

Cardozo Decision
* Informed Consent: the right to full disclosure; the right to make one’s own decisions * Right to self-determination: the right to protect one’s own body and to determine how it shall be treated

Government Regulations & Professional Standards
1. National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research 2. President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research 3. American Nurses Association’s Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretative Statements 4. American Hospital Association’s Patient’s Bill of Rights

Application of Ethical and Legal Principles
1. Autonomy
2. Veracity
3.Confidentiality
4. Nonmalfeasance
-Negligence
-Malpractice
-Duty
5. Beneficence
6. Justice

Definition of Ethical Principles
1. Autonomy: the right of a client to self-determination

2. Veracity: truth telling; the honesty by a professional in providing full disclosure to a client of the risks and benefits of any invasive medical procedure

3. Confidentiality: a binding social contract or covenant to protect another’s privacy; a professional obligation to respect privileged information between health professional and client.

4. Nonmalfeasance: the principle of doing no harm
A. Negligence: the doing or nondoing of an act, pursuant to a duty, that a reasonable person in the same circumstances would or would not do, with these actions or nonactions leading to injury of another person or his/her property.

B. Malpractice: refers to a limited class of negligent activities that fall within the scope of performance by those pursuing a particular profession involving highly skilled and technical services.

C. Duty: a standard of behavior; a behavioral expectation relevant to one’s personal or professional status in life.

5. Beneficence: The principle of doing good; acting in the best interest of a client through adherence to professional performance standards and procedural protocols.

6. Justice: Equal distribution of goods, services, benefits, and burdens regardless of client diagnosis, culture, national origin, religious orientation, sexual preference and the like.

Legality of Patient Education and Information
* Patients’ Bill of Rights
* Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations * State Regulations
* Federal Regulations

Documentation of Patient Education...
“…probably the most undocumented skilled service….” (Casey, 1995) Documentation is required by:
* JCAHO
* Third-Party Reimbursement: insurance companies, Medicare and Medicaid programs, or “private pay” * Respondeat Superior: The employer may be held liable for the negligence or other unlawful acts of the employee during the performance of his or her job-related responsibilities.

Economic Factors of Patient Education: Justice and Duty Revisited

Challenge for health care providers:
* efficient & cost-effective patient education
* legal responsibility of all nurses
* little preparation on pre-licensure level

Financial Terminology
* Direct Costs
-Fixed Costs
-Variable Costs
* Indirect Costs
* Cost Savings, Benefit, and Recovery

Financial Terminology
-Direct Costs: those that are tangible and predictable, such as rent, food, heating, etc.
Fixed Costs: those that are stable and ongoing, such as salaries, mortgage, utilities, durable equipment, etc.
Variable Costs: those related to fluctuation in volume, program attendance,...
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