Essay of Francesco Patriarch

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(1) Francesco Petrarch (1304-74)
As the first of the Humanist, he was one of the most influential poets of the Middle Ages. And he is considered by most to be the founder Renaissance Humanism in general. Petrarch was the first and greatest representative of the humanistic phase of the Italian Renaissance. He was the first scholar of the mediaeval time who fully realized and appreciated the supreme excellence

and beauty of the classical literature and its value as a means of culture. He inspired humanist philosophy which led to the intellectual flowering of the Renaissance. He captivated in the immense moral and practical value of the study of ancient history and literature – that is, the study of human thought and action. Also gives spirit secular

(2) Feudalism
Feudalism is a political and economic system of Europe from the 9th to about the 15th century. It was a system, common in Europe in the Middle Ages, where access to farm land was gained by service to the owner: the feudal lord. Feudalism was thus a comprehensive social system which defined authority and property rights. Feudalism usually emerged as a result of the decentralization of an empire.

This was the Age of Enlightenment when writers valued reason and the Middle Ages were viewed as the “Dark Ages”. Enlightenment authors generally mocked and ridiculed anything from the “Dark Ages” including feudalism, projecting its negative characteristics on the current French monarchy as a means of political gain.

(3) Averroes (1126-98)
He was an philosopher. He is most famous for his commentaries on Aristotle’s works, which had been mostly forgotten in the west. Beginning in the twelfth century, that the legacy of Aristotle was Recovered in the West. Averroes attempt to reconcile Aristotelian Philosophy with Islamic theology and to demonstrate that philosophy And theology were two different path to understanding the same truth. Shortly after his death, interest in philosophy and theology began to decline In Islamic world. His work influenced Western thought from 12-16cen. His Commentaries were used by students of Arisotle during 14-15century.

(4) Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-75)
He was an Italian author and poet and important Renaissance humanist and is considered to be founder of modern Italian poets, Art of telling story (Romance) He is known for his famous work; Decameron [ wit, mocking, sarcasism, critical] and his poetry in the Italian vernacular. He had Feudalism idea, Sexual column

(5) Pope Leo X (1475-1521) Giovanni di Lorenzo de’Medici Pope Leo X is perhaps most important of the Renaissance Popes, made Rome a center of European culture and raised the papacy to significant political power in Europe. Also he was most famous for being the pontiff at the time of Martin Luther's display of the 95 Theses. As part of a fund-raising campaign commissioned by Pope Leo X to finance the renovation of St Peter’s Bascillica in Rome, A Dominican Priest began the sale of indulgences in the German lands.

(6) Henry the Navigator (1394-1460).
He was Portuguese prince who sponsored explorations of the west African coast during the 1400s. He was very important because he tried to invent strategy and his explorations helped advance the study of geography and made Portugal the leader in navigation among European nations. It provided the groundwork for the

development of Portugal’s colonial empire and for the country’s rise international prominence in the 16th century.
Soon Spanish sent out own voyages of discovery in competition with Portugal. For instance Columbus, Magellon and Balboa.
Unfortunately these voyages of discovery eventually led to
slavery and the exploitation of the natives of the Americas.

(7) September Testament
Martin Luther’s first translation of the entire New Testament from the Greek original was published by Melchior Lotter the Younger in September 1522. It is so-called September...
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