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TRAGIC FLAW IN PADA SEBUAH KAPAL BY NH. DINI

There have been various attempts to define literature. We can define it, for example, as 'imaginative' writing in the sense of fiction writing which is not literally true. But even the briefest reflection on what people commonly include under the heading of literature suggests that this will not do.

Literature is not a way of knowing reality but a kind of collective utopian dreaming which has gone throughout history, an expression of those fundamental human desires which have given rise to civilization itself, but which are never fully satisfied there and it is no to be seen as the self-expression of individual author. Tragedy and comedy can be subdivided into high mimetic, low mimetic and ironic; tragedy is about human isolation, comedy about human integration.

In the Poetics, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) compares tragedy to such other metrical forms as comedy and epic. He determines that tragedy, like all poetry, is a kind of imitation (mimesis), but adds that it has a serious purpose and uses direct action rather than narrative to achieve its ends. He says that poetic mimesis is imitation of things as they could be, not as they are, for example, of universals and ideals thus poetry is a more philosophical and exalted medium than history, which records what has actually happened.

This is the concept of Imitation (mimesis) by Aristotle.
Imitation

Human instinct of imitating

Fidelity reproducing of facts/experiences

Learning = Live list Pleasure = the Process of Coloring

Aristotle’s concept of mimesis helps us to explain what is distinctive about our experience of art. Poetry is mimetic, meaning that it invites us to imagine its subject matter as real while acknowledging that it is in fact fictional. Aristotle Theory about tragedy is not difference about Structuralism. Fungsi utama karya sastra adalah untuk melukiskan, mencerminkan kehidupan manusia, sedangkan kehidupan manusia itu sendiri. Dalam strukturalisme konsep fungsi memegang peranan penting. Artinya, unsur-unsur sebagai ciri khas teori tersebut dapat berperanan secara maksimal semata-mata dengan adanya fungsi, yaitu dalam rangka menunjukkan antahubungan unsur-unsur yang terlibat. The structures in question here are those imposed by our way or perceiving the world and organizing experience, rather than objective entities already existing in the external world. It follows from this that meaning or significance isn’t a kind of core or essence inside things: rather, meaning is always outside. Meaning is always an attribute of things, in the literal sense that meanings are attributed to the things by the human mind, not contained within them. According to Aristotle, tragedy has six main elements: plot, character, diction, thought, spectacle, and song, of which the first two are primary. Particularly significant is his statement that the plot is the most important element of tragedy. Tragedy according Aristotle's is for higher type, serious and dramatic actions. Tragedy is an imitation, not of men, but of action and life, of happiness and misery. Character determines their action that makes them happy or wretched. The purpose of action in the tragedy is not the representation of character but character comes in as contributing to the action. Hence the incidents and the plot are the end of the tragedy; and the end is the chief thing of all. Without action there cannot be a tragedy. The plot is the first principle, and, as it were, the soul of a tragedy: character holds the second place. Aristotle’s said that about law of plot there are: 1) Unity, 2) Based on probable and possible 3) Cause and effects and 4) Surprise. Aristotle’s goes on to discuss the structure of the ideal tragic plot and spends several chapters on its requirements. He says that the plot must be a complete whole with a definite beginning, middle, and end . Its length should be such that the spectators can comprehend without...
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