ESRM EXTRA CREDIT
Q1: European began their colonization of other lands between 1200 and 1700 because of industrialization fueled by forest materials and locally available supplies of wood was insufficient to industrialize. This started the cycle of needing more wood, conquering foreign nations for their wood, and then using the wood to maintain their status industrialize power which causes them to need more wood and the cycle starts up again. The Europeans were successful in this and the evidence would be out history. America was formed from a colony of Great Britain and the map showing the imperialism around the world including Africa, South America, and Asia. Q2: Portuguese started their period of colonization 100 years ahead of the rest of the European countries because the invented and designed an ocean ship called the caravel and advancements in navigation. They were the first to navigate using latitudes. Without these technology they would have unnecessarily long voyages, shipwrecks, commercial losses, accidental discoveries, and not return home aka death. Q3: Madeira in Portuguese’s means Wood Island. The island of Madeira was converted to forests to vineyards. Madeira wine contributed to the American Revolution because the British seized John hancock’s sloop the Liberty after he had unloaded a cargo of madeira and a dispute arose over import duties. This caused riots to erupt in Boston. The island was used to build ships for Portugal leading to its naval dominance. Q4: King Henry was responsible for wide spread deforestation because with his full treasury and lots of enemies he decreed that England will have an arms industry and a first class navy. Both of those industry required lots of wood which led to deforestation. They need wood for boats and wood to fuel the furnaces. Q5: To build a new ship it took 2,000 oak trees and to repair four ships it took around 1,700 oak trees. The ships had a short life span because of ship worms that ate the wood which was very bad. The British were excited about their new colony is Asia because of the Teak tree that is very resistant to fungi insects and shipworms which solved their problem of short lifespans of their ships which help their navy retain their dominance. Q6: The broad arrow policy was the policy that any tree marked with an arrow was not to be cut down and was to be used to build ships. But in the American colonies they ignored this policy because they didn’t like it and it created more seeds for the American Revolution. Q7: In the American colonies the European settlers cut down trees because it was for redemption (manifest destiny), for progress (forests had no value for someone who wanted to farm the lands and farming was a civilized activity to pursue) and fear (these lands were scary places that needed to be tamed and where wild animals would see humans as a food source needed to be killed). The ideal forest condition was to cut down the forest. Q8: In John Gast painting of manifest destiny was a religious belief that the US should expand from Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean in the name of God. The pictured showed the east with an angel and light and the wild west very dark with natives. The implication for the native Americans were that they had to leave and that led to the trail of tears which thousands of native Americans lost their lives. Q9: The book “The Isles at the Center of the World. ‘Unfinished Empire’ by John Darwin” suggest that a striking theme when an empire is expanding is racism cultural and legal imposition of their culture on the one that are being forced to comply. This connects to Manifest Destiny by the fact that the American ‘Empire’ is saying that god gave them the right to move an entire population of people with their own culture to leave or die. Q10: Forest were cleared in 1600-1750 by Pioneers were clearing land for farming purposes. And they didn’t clear as much acres as they did during the 1800-1900s. This...
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