Erikson’s Crises in Adulthood and Older Adulthood
* Generativity vs. Stagnation (Interest in establishing and guiding the next generation) * Child birth, caring about others, believing in the human species * Volunteer for organizations or mentoring at work
* Stagnation – self-indulgence, boredom, lack of psychological growth * Midlife Crises – no support in research; more of a cohort effect (started in 1970’s – teens were anti-society and disownment of adults, women’s rights, workplace) * Integrity vs. Despair (Acceptance of the limitations of life, sense of being larger part of history, high-level being at peace with your life’s path) * Despair – Close to the end of one’s life, one has regrets; worried about themselves then society as a whole.
Hierarchy of Human Needs
* Maslow – Stage theory but not linked to age (linked to success of previous stage) – * Self-Actualization (morality, creativity, spontaneity, problem solving, lack of prejudice, acceptance of facts) * Esteem (self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of/by others) * Love/Belonging (Friendship, family, sexual intimacy) * Safety (security of body, employment, resources, morality, family, health, property) * Physiological (breathing, eating, etc.)
Emotional Experiences in Adulthood
* Self Theories – Each person ultimately depends on him/herself * As people get older, they get happier (findings constant even after controlling for gender, marital status, extraversion, health) * Erikson Theory
* Socioeconomic Selectivity Theory
* When time is not limited, individuals focus on information gathering, meeting new acquaintances. * When time is limited, individuals become more selective and focus in on goals and activities that are emotionally salient (Positive). * Older adults preferred to spend 30 min with familiar...