urtThe Equal Opportunities Movement
Orla McNulty and Cassie Walker
The Equal Rights Ammendment
* Alice Paul believed freedom from legal sex discrimination required an Equal Rights Amendment that ensured the equal application of the Constitution to all citizens. In 1923 she introduced the "Lucretia Mott Amendment," which read: "Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction." It was introduced in every session of Congress until it passed in reworded form in 1972. * The Equal Rights Amendment was reintroduced in Congress on July 14, 1982 and has been before every session of Congress since. * An alternative strategy for its ratification has arisen from the "Madison Amendment," concerning changes in Congressional pay, which was passed by Congress in 1789 and finally ratified in 1992 as the 27th Amendment to the Constitution.
Equal Opportunities in the Workplace (Late 1980’s – 1990’s) * The Equal Pay Act of 1963: It states men and women who perform substantially similar work must receive equal pay. It also enforces federal minimum wage laws for all workers regardless of gender. * The Civil Rights Act of 1964: It states that employers may not discriminate on the basis of gender, race, religion or national origin. Though celebrated for its impact on African-American workers, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is also significant in the history of women's rights. * The Civil Rights Act of 1991: It specifies that women who face job-related discrimination are entitled to monetary damages. Women who observe discriminatory behaviour can consult with lawyers, including civil rights advocates who offer free advice and may even take a case and charge small or no legal fees. However, equal rights for women in the workplace does not eliminate the reality of merit-based pay and variable pay scales for workers based on seniority and job effectiveness. Women are simply entitled to the same...
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