Environmental Systems and Societies

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Paloma Castro
October 2, 2012
ESS II

Conversation Biology:
* Conservation biology is the scientific study of the nature and status of Earth’s biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction and the erosion of biotic interactions. * Using natural capital sustainably protecting biodiversity * Anthropocentric view—humans are there to preserve nature Preservation Biology:

* Attempts to exclude human activities in areas where humans have not yet encroached This is a non-anthropocentric viewpoint, which puts value on nature on its own intrinsic worth, not as a resource that humans can exploit. * Eco-centric: Excludes humans

Acronyms:
* IUCN: International Union for Conversation of Nature: List threatened species—RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES * UNEP: UN environment program
* UNESCO: United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization * CITES: Convention on International Trade In Endangered Species * WWF: World Wide Fund for Nation
Green Politics:
* Green politics is a political ideology, which places a high importance on environmental goals. * Their aim is to have sustainable development
* Promote reforestation
* Reduce deforestation
Direct Value:
* Things that we directly benefit from
* Consumptive use—resources used directly
* Things that we get directly, or that we take—Food would be an example of this. Indirect Value:
* Values assigned that do not involve harvesting or destroying resources (non-consumptive) * Examples: Insects and the soil
* Things that we indirectly benefit from, or like trees that we get indirectly ………………………………………………………………………………… Biodiversity that act as indicators: Reason to converse these species * Indicator species: Species that are sensitive to pollution and die, thus they are an indicator to an area’s population. * Human health: Antibiotics (Penicillin—Came from a fungus on an orange.) Biological control agents:

* Some organisms help control invasive species without the use of chemicals. * Use to control non-native species or pests.
Ethical/Intrinsic value:
* Each species has a right to exist—bioright that is unrelated to human needs * Biologically diverse ecosystems help to preserve their component species, reducing the need for future conservation efforts on single species. * Preserve genes for genetic manipulation

* Native populations should have a right to live
THE IUCN: THE INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE: * To determine whether a species should be added to the Red List of Threatened species they look at: 1. Population
2. Geographic range: How far does one individual go
3. Climate change: If there are certain climates that they need to survive 4. Mature individuals vs. children (only few species making into adulthood, not a healthy species) 5. Area of occupancies: How much area around the globe does this species take 6. Slow reproduction

* Examples of species that are in the IUCN species: 1. The queen of the Andes, at the mountaintop and in the rainforest * It is a plant in the Andes. Found in South America and thus it is in a tropical country. * It’s isolated

* An endemic species
* Small species size
* It produces seeds every eighty years and then it dies * Scientists think that climate change is imitating the amount that it can flower * Slow reproduction

2. Peacock Parachute Tarantula, and it lives in India * Loss of habitat because of logging
3. European eel: Lives in Europe
* Low population because of fishing
* Introduction of exotic species: Parasitic toad * Dams construction...
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