Q.1) Elaborate the TQM Process in Small Scale Enterprises.
Ans) The purpose of TQM (Total Quality Management) is to meet the requirements of customers consistently by continuous improvement in the quality of work of all employees. For this, TQM involves the following process: 1. Customer Satisfaction: Customer is one who buys others’ goods and services. Today, customer dictates production or market. The long-term success of any business, therefore, depends on customer satisfaction. This is especially true for small businesses where the impact of losing even a single customer can be serious. The first step in planning for customer satisfaction is to understand what customers expect from the product or service. For any business, there can be two types of customers: internal and external. 2. Processes: Process can be defined as a series of inter-dependent tasks that produce results. This requires transformation of inputs into outputs. Processes exist in every part of an organization. People mistakenly think of only production or manufacturing operations. In fact, the word ‘process’ is all embracing one. As every part of an organization performs work, all these should be systematically defined to include them in the process. Administration, billing, sales, maintenance, recruitment and training are the examples of different parts of organization in which process exists. 3. Continuous Improvement: The third step involved in TQM is making efforts for continuous improvement in performance/process. The first step in improving process is to eliminate the waste associated with the process. But, the question is how to eliminate the waste? The various techniques like value-added assessment, minimize checks and inspections, and minimize administrative tasks help reduce/eliminate waste in process. Simplification means reducing the complexity of a process. Further, simplification can lead to fewer activities and fewer things go wrong. Experience suggests that the simpler a process is, the easier it is to learn and perform consistently. Reducing cycle time is yet another technique to improve process. Cycle time is the time required to deliver a product or service to customer. 4. Team Work: The fourth element involved in TQM process is team work. A team is a group of individuals who work together on one or more common processes. These individuals may all be from the same department, represent several departments, or involve an external supplier or customer. Effective teamwork has its foundations on consensus. Consensus is a general agreement by everyone involved. Consensus is arrived when all members of a team understand a decision, accept and support it. 5. Personal Initiative: TQM process completes with encouraging personal initiative in organizational functioning. Empowerment breeds personal initiative. Q.2) Explain the different phases in entrepreneurial development programme. Ans) Entrepreneurial Programmes have to follow certain phases. * Initial Phase or Pre-training Phase: During this period necessary preparations for implementing the training programme are being made. The important activities during the phase are listed below: 1. Creation of the infrastructural facilities required by the programme. 2. Preparation of the syllabus for the training.
3. Preparation of the guest facilities for the trainees.
4. Inauguration of the training programme.
5. Formulation of the techniques for the selection of trainees. 6. Formation of the selection committee.
7. Advertising propaganda of the training programme.
8. Preparation of the application form for the trainees.
9. Review of the training facilities.
* Training Phase or Development Phase: This is the phase of the real training. During this phase efforts are made to increase the entrepreneurial capabilities of the trainees. The main aims of this phase also include the creation of the...