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Science and Technology
Boning—Boon or Bane?

The subject of human cloning (reproductive cloning) is shrouded in controversy, right from its conception. On the other hand therapeutic cloning, which is sometimes misunderstood as reproductive cloning, is not the creation of an offspring but instead, vital stem cells are taken from human embryos, which are then used to generate tissues and organs. These organs and tissues can be then used for transplantation. The ultimate aim of this process is strictly to treat various heart diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and to combat cancer. Since reproductive cloning is used for the conception of a specific offspring possessing specific characteristics, it is much more controversial, and has much more at stake than therapeutic cloning. Though there are certain advantages of reproductive cloning like individuals having fertility problems would be then able to produce biologically-related children. Besides that those couples who art: at risk of transferring genetic disease to offspring would then be able to have healthy children, Cloning technology is in the primary Stage and still requires more technical know-how to achieve the perfection. Human reproductive cloning is temporarily banned because of inadequate technical knowledge, inefficient procedures and is extremely; dangerous, and ethically irresponsible. Although many mammalian^ species have been cloned successfully, cloning techniques are still primitive, and thus, are prone to failure.

Some animal species, including humans, are found to be more resistant to somatic cell nuclear transfer than others, and thus nave a poorer success rate. It took 276 nuclear transfer procedures by the Scottish scientists at the Roslin Institute in order to produce the world's first cloned animal. Dolly, the sheep in 1997. The success rate by means of reproductive cloning remains pale when compared to natural procreation, and thus does not justify cloning as a form of reproduction for the time being. The current success rate for reproductive cloning stands at one or two viable offspring per 100 experiments. The .perils, which arises from reproductive cloning are numerous. During mammalian reproductive cloning, a large section of clones suffered from weakened immune systems, which highly reduces the animal's capability to ward off infections, disease, and other health disorders. Besides that many of the offspring produced through cloning suffer enormous abnormalities, such as missing or deformed organs. Various studies done on reproductive cloning have shown that more than 90% of cloning attempts fail to produce on: viable offspring. Early human cloning experiments are likely to result in the same abnormalities found in other, species, which will possibly result in numerous medical failures, miscarriages, abortions, or births of offspring having highly-deformed organs and other abnormal features. Because of the lack of knowledge surrounding the mental facets of reproductive cloning, many scientists believe that an attempt to clone humans would be unethical. The foremost uncertainty correlated to reproductive cloning is its impact on the clone's mental development. While mental features in cloned animals may or may not be significant, but they are vital to the development of a healthy human offspring. Reproductive cloning could possibly put heavy psychological burdens on the cloned offspring. Reproductive cloning only replicates the genetic material of the progenitor, thus the possibility of producing a precise "replica" will not be possible because both children raised under different environments will have different personalities. Therefore, cloning will merely attempt to fill a void, but difficult to reach a pinnacle where this technique can precisely replicate a human being. Numerous other uncertainties linked to mental development of the offspring, along with extreme dangers and inefficiency, attempting to clone humans for the time...
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