English Pronounciation

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Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

LIMBA ŞI LITERATURA ENGLEZĂ

English pronunciation, spelling and vocabulary

Mariana NEAGU

2006

© 2006

Ministerul Educaţiei şi Cercetării Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural Nici o parte a acestei lucrări nu poate fi reprodusă fără acordul scris al Ministerului Educaţiei şi Cercetării

Acknowledgements I am grateful to Anca Cehan and Dean Hufstetler for their helpful comments and constructive suggestions on the entire manuscript. Their generous help meant a lot to me. I would also like to acknowledge the considerate help of my students, Andreea Ali, Andreea Cruceanu, Vica Horinceanu and Codruţ Mirică who offered feedback, support and cheerful encouragement at various stages in the complex process of writing this coursebook. Finally, I owe a special debt to my family and close friends for their forbearance, for supporting my efforts on the project and for giving the time I needed to complete it.

ISBN 10 973-0-04573-9; ISBN 13 978-973-0-04573-4.

Table of contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction Unit 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5.2 The Sounds of English Unit objectives Phonetics and phonology The connection of phonetics and phonology with nonlinguistic and linguistic sciences The importance of phonetic studies Phonetic symbols and types of transcription Types of standard pronunciation Received Pronunciation General American Summary Key concepts Further reading Answers to SAQs Differences between British English and American English Unit objectives Pronunciation differences The vowel system The consonant system Differences in spelling Phonetic spelling tendencies The omission of superfluous letters Lexical differences in main subject areas People and their immediate environment Human interaction and communication Social institutions Natural environment Summary Key concepts Further reading SAA No. 1 Answers to SAQs Pronunciation and Spelling Unit objectives The spelling of consonants Vowel markers Keeping a spelling constant Silent letters Homographs and homophones Pronunciation and etymology

iv 1 2 2 3 5 6 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 14 14 14 16 18 19 19 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 27 28 28 29 30 33 34 35 i

Unit 2 2.1. 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2. 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

Unit 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

Table of contents

Summary Key concepts Further reading SAA No. 2 Answers to SAQs Unit 4 4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.4.1 4.4.2 Aspects of Connected Speech Unit objectives Linking /r/ and intrusive /r/ Assimilation Regressive assimilation Progressive assimilation Reciprocal assimilation Obligatory and non-obligatory assimilation Elision Vowel elision Consonant elision Strong and weak forms of function words Uses of weak forms Uses of strong forms Summary Key concepts Further reading SAA No. 3 Answers to SAQs Syllables and Stress in English Unit objectives The nature of the syllable The structure of the English syllable Types of syllable The nature of stress Primary and secondary stress Stress and vowels Predicting stress in derivatives Strong suffixes Weak suffixes Prefixes Stress in compounds Rhythm and its influence on word stress Stress shift and semantic implications Summary Key concepts Further reading SAA No. 4 Answers to SAQs English as an Intonation Language Unit objectives Definition and components of intonation The tone unit as a basic unit of intonation Tone-patterns in English Functions of intonation

36 37 37 37 38 40 41 41 42 42 43 44 45 46 46 47 48 48 50 52 52 52 53 53 55 56 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 64 65 66 66 67 68 70 70 71 71 72 74 75 75 77 78 81

Unit 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7.1 5.7.2 5.7.3 5.8 5.9 5.10

Unit 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 ii

Proiectul pentru Învăţământul Rural

Table of contents

6.5 6.5.1 6.5.2 6.5.3 6.6

Intonation and sentence types Declaratives Imperatives and exclamations Questions Contrastive analysis...
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