English Grammar: Paraphrase

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1. What is paraphrasing?
- A (more or less) free rewording of an expression or text, as an explanation, clarification and translation. “Paraphrasing, or translation with latitude, where the author is kept in view…but his words are not as strictly followed as his sense” (John Dryen, preface to his translation of Ovid, 1680) - An act or result of rewording (Ex. Simplified version of a legal document) - To make a paraphrase: to translate or define loosely (McArthur, T. (1998).Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press) 2. Why paraphrase?

- To avoid plagiarism and give credits to the authors for their work - To make sure that you fully understand the content of the texts - To discuss someone’s arguments or texts directly - To use as expert evidence for a point you are making in your own argumentative text - To present an opposing viewpoint that you wish to refute (Bridgewater Writing Center handout – Retrieved November 28th, 2011 from

http://www.bridgewater.edu/WritingCenter/Workshops/paraphrastips.htm) 3. When to paraphrase?
- The ideas in the original passage are more important than the style of the authority of the author - The ideas are more memorable than the author’s languages - The original language is difficult to comprehend or highly technical - The quotation is too long or wordy

- The original passage needs to be clarified
(Texas A&M University, Paraphrasing, University Writing Center. Retrieved November 28th, 2011 from http://writingcenter.tamu.edu/2005/how-to/research-documentation/paraphrasing/) 4. Steps of paraphrasing

Read the original work to until you fully understand the content. Then, set aside the original version. Ask Yourself: What were the main ideas and details?
Other questions: Who is the paragraph about?
What is the paragraph about? When is it taking place? Where is it taking place? Why is it taking place? Put the ideas in your own words

* Use quotation marks to identify any unique terms or phraseology we have borrowed from the source * Check your paraphrased version with the original one to make sure that our version accurately reflects the content/author’s perspectives/ ideas * Record the source (including the page) so that we can return and edit easily if we decide to refer to the materials in our writing READ

(Purdue Online Writing Lab. Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words. Retrieved December 7th,
2011 from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/02/) 5. How to paraphrase effectively
Method1. Use different vocabulary with the same meaning
* The most popular way to do paraphrasing
* It is difficult sometimes to replace a word with others which have the exactly same meaning. Hence, the sentences may be unnatural and incomprehensible for readers. Ex: “It can be difficult to choose a suitable place to study English” Ex1. “It is often a challenge to pick up a relevant school to study English.” (X) Ex2. “It is sometimes hard to select an appropriate place to learn English.” * 100% Rule of using Synonyms: “Only use a synonym for a word if you are 100% certain that the new word has 100% the same meaning as the original word.”

Method2. Change the order of words
* Change the order of the clauses if the sentence has two clauses: “If they have some help, most people can paraphrase effectively. However, practice is important because paraphrasing is difficult.” ➜ “ Most people can paraphrase effectively if they receive some help. Nevertheless, as...
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