Energy Devices for Sustainable Urban Environment

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EE8093 Energy Devices for
8093
Sustainable Urban
Environment
Environment
A/P Terence Wong
Division of Microelectronics
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Office: S2-B2c-103
Email: ekswong@ntu
Email: ekswong@ntu.edu.sg

EE8093 Energy Devices

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Course objectives
Course objectives
This energy minor course shows how technological
gy
solutions can contribute to solving environmental
problems in the context of cities
The basic operating principles and applications of
photovoltaic devices used for solar energy
conversion will be introduced.
In addition, thermoelectric devices for thermal energy
harvesting and electrochemical devices for
renewable energy storage are discussed
renewable energy storage are discussed.

EE8093 Energy Devices

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Course outline
Sustainability in urban environments
in urban environments
Urban heat island effect
Crystalline photovoltaic cells
Thin film photovoltaic cells
Thermoelectric devices
Primary and secondary batteries
Electrochemical supercapacitors
Outlook

EE8093 Energy Devices

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Sustainability
Sustainability
• In the 21st century, the world is facing a host of acute environmental problems that are generically known as
‘sustainability issues’
• These issues are complicated and interrelated. They are
reported very often in the media (TV, websites).
Everyone have at least heard of them but may not
appreciate their future implications
• Sustainability is about over consumption of the finite
resources of the planet.
• When a resource is being used at a rate that is faster
than that at which it can be replenished, there is a
sustainability issue.

EE8093 Energy Devices

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Sustainability Issues
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Energy
Fresh water
Arable land (food)
Forests
Marine resources

USA

Canada
Niagara Falls, Lake Ontario

Wheat fields, Hokkaido, Japan
EE8093 Energy Devices

Wheat field, Hokkaido

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Sustainability
Sustainability Issues
Forests

Marine

EE8093 Energy Devices
California redwood

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Sustainability
Sustainability
Amongst these, energy is the most critical. It affects all
countries in all stages of economic development.
If the energy problem is not addressed, it will have global
ecological consequences that affect people of all income
groups and other living organisms (plants & animals).
Super typhoons

Severe rain and 
flooding

Heavy snow, blizzards 

Drought

Crop failure, food 
shortage

Shortage of drinking 
water

Extinction of species

Transport problems

Desertification

Buildings/
Conflicts
Infrastructure damage
EE8093 Energy Devices

Inflation
7

Extreme weather events

Severe flooding Queensland Australia
(Dec 2010 - Jan 2011)
Severe drought Texas, US (ongoing)
EE8093 Energy Devices

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Extreme
Extreme weather events
House

Chicago, Illinois, US (60cm snow)
Jan 2011

Car
Gangneung city, Korea (80cm snow)
Jan 2011
2011

EE8093 Energy Devices

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Energy
gy
• It is a term from physics. It refers to ‘that which allows work to be done’
• ‘Work’ in this context is defined precisely as the product thi
th
of force and distance moved in the force direction(force
x distance, unit : Joule).
• In simpler terms, energy is simply what enables a car to move, a computer to run and a machine to produce
things in a factory.

Piston

Fuel-air
mixture

Richard P. Feynman, Feynman’s lectures on physics, vol. 1 (1964) EE8093 Energy Devices

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Conservation of energy
The total amount of energy in a closed system must be
constant. (No energy can flow across a closed system
boundary
boundary.
In other words, energy cannot be created or destroyed.
This is also the first law of thermodynamics.
Box represents a closed system, e.g. very well insulated room

Thermal

Kinetic
Electrical

Light
Light
Question:
‘So then why should I be worried about this energy problem?’ EE8093 Energy Devices...
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