Endocrine Flow Chart

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Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis)

Located in the hypophyseal fossa of the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

Function of melatonin: Coordinates body activities with sleep-wake cycles

Anterior Pituitary (glandular tissues)
Adenohypophysis

Small cone shaped gland located in the roof of the third ventricle of the brain

Pineal Gland

Produces amine hormone melatoin

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone (LH) gonadotropins

Posterior Pituitary (neural tissues)
Neurohypophysis

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) corticotropin

Prolactin (PRL)

Growth hormone (GH)

Oxytocin

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

Stimulates growth and energy metabolism requires intermediary proteins called somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors

Stimulates breast development and promotes and maintains lactation by the mammary glands after childbirth. It may stimulate testerone production in males.

Influences the growth and activity of the thyroid gland

Stimulates the secretion of glucocorticoids and other hormones of the adrenal cortex

In females FSH stimulates maturation of the ovarian follicles and production of estrogen. LH triggers ovulation and stimulates the production of estrogen and progesterone

In males FSH stimulates sperm production and LH stimulates production of testerone

Hyposecretion (not enough) results in dwarfism in children

Hypersecretion (excessive) causes gigantism in children and acromegaly (overgrowth of bones in hands, feet, & face in adults

causes the distal and collecting tubules of the kidneys to reabsorb more water from the urinary filtrate, thereby reducing urine output and conserving body water

Stimulates powerful uterine contractions during birth and coitus and also causes milk ejection in the lactating mother

Hyposecretion (too little) results in dehydration from excessive urine output, a condition called diabetes insipidus

Hypersecretion (excessive) results in adema, headache, and disorientation

Thyroid Gland

Parafollicular cells or C-cells

Follicular cells

Produces Thyroid hormone (TH) by secretion

Produces Amine

Calcitonin

Peptide

T 4 (Thyroxine)

T 3 (Triiodothryronine)

regulates many metabolic functions, Essential for growth, development of the nervous system, nervous system function in adults, amplifies activities of sympathetic nervous system

Hyposecretion of throxine leads to a condition of mental and physical sluggishness called myxedema

Hypersecretion causes elevated metabolic rate, nervousness, weightloss, sweating, and irregular heartbeat

Inhibits the activity of osteoclasts, thereby preventing bone reabsorption and release of calcium. Chief cells are source of PTH

Parathyroid Glands

Thymus

Produces the peptide hormone (PTH) by secretion

Acts directly on the kidneys to increase reabsorption of calcium

Increase reabsorption of bone. This increase blood calcium levels

Promotes the final conversion of Vitamin D to its active form, the steroid hormone calcitriol that increases uptake of calcium from the intestines

Regulate T cell development and play and role in immune response

Produces hormones thymosin and thymopoietin

Adrenal

Adrenal medulla

Secretes amine hormones called catecholamines

Catecholamines are important during the flight or fight response when immediate physical action is called for

Adrenal cortex

Mineralcorticoids produces aldosterone hormones responsible for sodium retention and potassium excretion

Secretes hormones mineralcorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens

Zona fasciculate/Zona reticularis produces hormones called Glucocorticoids that...
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