No Child Left Behind (NLCB)- requires that all students in grades 3-8 must take standardized achievement tests in reading and mathematics every year, in addition, one more exam will be required in high school. 2007-science test was added. Based on test scores schools are judged to determine if their students are making Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) toward becoming proficient in the subjects tested. All students must reach proficiency by the end of the 2013-2014 school year.
Descriptive Studies- Studies that collect detailed info about specific situations, often using observation, surveys, interviews, recordings, or a combination of these methods. * Ethnography is a descriptive approach to research that focuses on life within a group and tries to understand the meaning of events to the people involved. * Participant observation is a method for conducting descriptive research in which the researcher becomes a participant in the situation in order to better understand life in that group. * Researches also employ case studies, which are intensive study of one person or one situation. Ex.) how a student tries to learn specific material
* Correlation is a number that indicates both the strength and the direction of a relationship between two events or measurements, correlations range from 1.00 to -1.00. The closer the correlation is to either 1.00 or -1.00 the stronger the relationship. ex.) the correlation between height and weight is .70(strong correlation) the correlation between height and number of languages spoken is about .00 (no relationship at all). * The sign of the correlation tells the direction of the relationship: -Positive Correlation: indicates that the two factors increase or decrease together. As one gets larger, so does the other. Ex.) height and weight are positively correlated because greater height tends to be associated with greater weight. -Negative Correlation: Means that increase in one factor are related to decrease in the other ex.) the less you pay for a theater ticket, the farther ou are from the stage. Improtant to know that correlations do not prove cause and effect.
Experimental Studies- research method in which variables are manioulated and the effects recorded. * Participants/Subjects: refers to people or animals being studied-such as teachers or students. * A way to make sure that groups of participants are essentially the same is to assign each person to a group using random procedure -Random: means each participant has an equal chance of being in any group, so without any definite pattern; following no rule.
Theories for Educational Psychology:
Jean Piaget- created one of the best-known stage theories, describing four qualitatively different stages of cognitive development (gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated) * According to Piaget, all the explanation and practice in the world will not help a child functioning at one stage to understand the ways of thinking at a higher stage. -four stages of thinking: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal
Sigmund Freud- five stages of pschosexual development-same five stages in the same order for all people. If the conflicts of one stage are not resolved, Frued suggested that the individual could become fixated at that stage. * Criticized for overemphasizing sex and aggression. Based his theory off wealthy European women with very specific mental problems then created stages in development of children without even studying kids. * Concepts of unconscious motivation and importance of early experiences were influences in many fields.
Erik Erikson- offered framework for understanding the needs of young people in relation to society. * Psychosocial theory- describes the relation of the individual’s emotional needs to the social...