1. Samenvatting Boek “Before the Industrial Revolution” M.Cipolla 2. Kleine samenvatting Boek “Arm en Rijk” D.Landes
3. Samenvatting algemene hoorcolleges: Migratie & Interbellum
1. Samenvatting Boek “Before the Industrial Revolution” M.Cipolla
CHAPTER 1: Demand (pages: 3 t/m 52)
Spain census of population, 1789, lot of population estimations are rough and not precise. Small societies. Not very large growth of population in 18th century. Low fertility or high mortality is the cause of slow growth. So population of preindustrial Europe remained relatively small. (more in chapter 5). Normal mortality occurs in normal years. Catastrophic mortality occurs in calamitous years, it far exceeded current fertility. Always drastic fluctuations of population.
Needs: depend on population size, geographical factors, and structure of population by age/gender/occupation & sociocultural factors. Cultural factors forbid/duty to do certain things. As long as a person is free to demand what he wants, what counts on the market are not ‘needs’, but ‘wants’. Wants are both expressed by individuals and society but only have limited resources, we have to make choices. Wants become effective demand when they are backed by purchasing power. (expressed by purchasing power). Purchasing power is based on income/distribution of income (public/private) & level and structure of prices.
Income and distribution: Incomes can be divided in wages/profits/interests and rents. Preindustrial Europe was a striking contrast between the abject misery of the mass and the affluence and magnificence of a limited number of very rich people. Lyon & Florence 10% of the population controlled more than 50 % of the wealth assessed. Other measurement of wealth: bags of grain. (reserves). Gregory King made accurate calculations of national income, putting to good use all the material he had available in addition to his personal observations. Poverty and unequal distribution of wealth and income. People with no income at all beggars. In France at the end of the 17th century, beggars counted for 10 % of the population. Most people lived at subsistence level, no savings or social security to help them in distress, only hope was charity. In different European cities, there were different percentages of “beggars”. Many fluctuations in unemployment figures. In years of famine (hongersnood/schaarste) high numbers of poverty. Income can be earned or transferred. Transfers: voluntary transfers (charity/gifts) & compulsory transfers (taxation). Many people left things behind for charity when they died. Also disasters and feasts served to accentuate charity. When people died from a disaster, their belongings went to the church/hospitals. Besides charity, gambling and dowries were forms of voluntary transfers, they could affect productive activity. Compulsory transfers; taxation on the one hand, plunder and theft on the other hand. Theft on low-class people because of: famine, inequality of income. Noble people also: earlier centuries of middle ages. Ransom (losgeld), large transfers of wealth. In early periods, great importance of alternatives to trade. After 10th century, trade expanded and concentrated in cities. (Permanent fairs).
Types of demand: Demand for production goods, demand for services, demand for capital goods. 1. Demand for consumption goods
2. Demand for services
3. Demand for capital goods
Demand can also be divided into:
1. Private internal demand
2. Public internal demand
3. Foreign demand
Private demand: the lower the income, the higher the percentage spend on food (logic). The poorer the country, the higher the percentage spend on food of total expenditures. The lower the income, the more spend on poorer foods, such as bread (stijfselachtig voedsel). Rich people, less amount of total income on food. Symbolic value of food in...